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Colorization of Greyscale Images Using Kekre’s Biorthogonal Color Spaces and Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation
H. B. Kekre, Sudeep D.Thepade, Nikita Bhandari
Pages - 49 - 58     |    Revised - 31-01-2011     |    Published - 08-02-2011
Volume - 1   Issue - 3    |    Publication Date - January / February 2011  Table of Contents
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KEYWORDS
KFCG, Kekre's Biorthogonal Color Space, VQ, Colorization
ABSTRACT
There is no exact solution for colorization of greyscale images. The main focus of the techniques [24] is to minimise the human efforts needed in manually coloring the greyscale images. The human interaction is needed only to find a reference color image, then the job of transferring color traits from reference color image to greyscale image is done by techniques discussed in[1]. Here the colors from some source color image are picked up and squirted into the colored greyscale image. The color palette used in colorization technique discussed here is generated using the modified VQ codebook obtained by applying Kekre’s Fast Codebook generation algorithm. The technique is tested using various VQ codebook sizes like 64, 128, 256. In this papaer the techniques of color traits transfer to greyscale images are revisited with various color spaces like newly introduced Kekre’s Biorthogonal color spaces and RGB color space. The pixel window size used is of size 2x2. Color traits transfer to greyscale algorithms are tested over five different images for deciding the color space giving best quality of coloring. The experimental results show that the Kekre’s Biorthogonal Green color space gives better coloring.
CITED BY (11)  
1 Hussein, A. A., & Yang, X. (2014). Colorization using edge-preserving smoothing filter. Signal, Image and Video Processing, 8(8), 1681-1689.
2 PCCOE, P. (2013). Comparison of Fingerprint Classification using KFCG Algorithm with various window sizes and codebook sizes. IJCSNS, 13(3), 60.
3 Kumar, S., & Singh, D. (2013). Texture Feature Extraction to Colorize Gray Images. International Journal of Computer Applications, 63(17), 10-17.
4 Kekre, H. B., Thepade, S., Dhamejani, K., Khandelwal, S., & Azmi, A. (2012). Performance Comparison of Assorted Color Spaces for Multilevel Block Truncation Coding based Face Recognition. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 10(3), 58.
5 Vimala, S., KowsalyaDevi, K., & Sathya, M. (2012). Codebook generation for vector quantization using interpolations to compress gray scale images. International Journal of Computer Applications, 42(9), 14-19.
6 Kekre, H. B., Thepade, S. D., & Parekh, D. (2011). Fingerprint Classification using KFCG Algorithm. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 9(12), 78.
7 Hussein, A. A., & Yang, X. (2011). Computing Flow Field for Colorizing Video Clips. International Journal of Digital Content Technology & its Applications, 5(12).
8 Kekre, H. B., Thepade, S. D., & Parkar, A. (2011). An extended performance comparison of colour to grey and back using the Haar, Walsh, and Kekre wavelet transforms. IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Special Issue on Artificial Intelligence.
9 Kekre, H. B., Sarode, T. K., Thepade, S. D., & Kamoji, S. (2011). Analysing Assorted Window Sizes with LBG and KPE Codebook Generation Techniques for Grayscale Image Colorization. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, 9(6), 134.
10 Kekre, H. B., Thepade, S. D., Sarode, T. K., & Nikita, M. Colorization of Grayscale Images using LBG VQ Codebook for different Color Spaces. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN, 2248, 9622.
11 Bhandari, N. Colorization of Grayscale Images using LBG VQ Codebook for different Color Spaces Dr. HB Kekre, Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade 2, Dr. Tanuja K. Sarode 3, Ms.
1 Google Scholar 
2 CiteSeerX 
3 Scribd 
4 SlideShare 
5 PdfSR 
1 1. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep Thepde, Tanuja Sarode, “Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation in VQ with Various Color Spaces for Colorization of greyscale Images”.
2 2. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Color Traits Transfer to Greyscale Images”, In Proc. of IEEE –International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, ICETET-2008, 16-18 July 2008, Raisoni College of Engg., Nagpur. Is uploaded and available online at IEEE Xplore CSDL, ACM Portal.
3 3. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Colorization of Greyscale Images using Kekre’s LUV Color Space”, In Proc. of National Level Technical Paper presentation Competition THINKQUEST-2009, 14 Mar 2009, Babasaheb Gawde Institute of Technology, Mumbai
4 4. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Algorithm for Fusion of Color and Greyscale Partial Images in Seascape Formation”, In Proc. of National Conference on Algorithms-2008, FCRCE, Bandstand, Bandra (W), Mumbai.
5 5. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Adib Parkar, “A Comparison of Kekre’s Fast Search and Exhaustive Search for various Grid Sizes used for Colouring a Greyscale Image”, In Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Signal Acquisition and Processing (ICSAP 2010), IACSIT, Bangalore, pp. 53-57, 9-10 Feb 2010.
6 6. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Archana Athawale, Adib Parkar, “Using Assorted Color Spaces and Pixel Window Sizes for Colorization of Greyscale Images”, (Selected), ACM-International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2010), TCET, Mumbai, 26-27 Feb 2010
7 7. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Blending in Vista Creation using Kekre’s LUV color Space” , Proceedings of SPIT -IEEE Colloquium and International conference. SPIT, Mumbai, 4, 5 Feb 2008.
8 8. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade,“Rotation Invariant Fusion of Partial Image Parts in Vista Creation using Missing View Regeneration”, WASET International Journal of Electrical Computer and Systems Engineering (IJECSE), Volume 2, Number 2, pp 94-101, 2008. http://www.waset.org/ijecse
9 9. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade,“Boosting Block Truncation Coding with Kekre’s LUV Color Space for Image Retrieval” WASET International Journal of Electrical Computer and Systems Engineering (IJECSE), Volume 2, Number 3, pp. 172-180, Spring 2008. http://www.waset.org/ijecse.
10 10. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Improving ‘Color to Grey and Back’ using Kekre’s LUV Color Space”, In Proc. of IEEE International Advanced Computing Conference 2009 (IACC’09), Thapar University, Patiala, INDIA, 6-7 March 2009. Is uploaded and available online at IEEE Xplore.
11 11. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Non-Involutional Orthogonal Kekre’s Transform”, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Advances in Engineering (IJMRAE), Ascent Publication House, 2009, Volume 1, No.I, pp 189-203, 2009. Abstract available online at www.ascent-journals.com.
12 12. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Improving the Performance of Image Retrieval using Partial Coefficients of Transformed Image”, International Journal of Information Retrieval, Serials Publications, Volume 2, Issue 1, 2009, pp. 72-79.
13 13. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Creating the Color Panoramic View using Medley of Greyscale and Color Partial Images ”, WASET International Journal of Electrical, Computer and System Engineering (IJECSE), Volume 2, No. 3, Summer 2008. Available online at www.waset.org/ijecse/v2/v2-3-26.pdf.
14 14. H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Color Based Image Retrieval using Amendment Block Truncation Coding with YCbCr Color Space”, International Journal on Imaging (IJI), Volume 2, Number A09, Autumn 2009, pp. 2-14. Available online at www.ceser.res.in/iji.html (ISSN: 0974-0627).
15 15. R. M. Grey, “Vector quantization”, IEEE ASSP Mag., pp.: 4-29, Apr. 1984.
16 16. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization”, WASET International Journal of Computer and Information Science and Engineering (IJCISE), vol. 2, No. 4, pp.: 251-254, Fall 2008. available: http://www.waset.org/ijcise.
17 17. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation using Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm Based on Energy Ordering Concept”, ACM International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control (ICAC3-2009), pp.: 357-362, 23-24 Jan 2009, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigous College of Engg., Mumbai. Available on ACM portal.
18 18. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation using Kekre’s Algorithm for Vector Quantization”, International Journal of Computer Science (IJCS), Vol. 3, No. 4, pp.: 287-292, Fall 2008. Available: http://www.waset.org/ijcs.
19 19. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation using Vector Quantization Techniques Based on Energy Ordering Concept” International Journal of Computing Science and Communication Technologies (IJCSCT) Volume 1, Issue 2, pp: 164-171, January 2009.
20 20. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul, “Color Image Segmentation Using Vector Quantization Techniques”, Advances in Engineering Science Sect. C (3), pp.: 35-42, July-September 2008.
21 21. H. B. Kekre, Kamal Shah, Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Performance Comparison of Vector Quantization Technique – KFCG with LBG, Existing Transforms and PCA for Face Recognition”, International Journal of Information Retrieval (IJIR), Vol. 02, Issue 1, pp.: 64-71, 2009.
22 22. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Color-Texture Features from DCT on VQ Codevectors obtained by Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation”, ICGST-International Journal on Graphics, Vision and Image Processing (GVIP), Volume 9, Issue 5, pp.: 1-8, September 2009. Available online at http://www.icgst.com/gvip/Volume9/Issue5/P1150921752.html.
23 23. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Color-Texture Based Feature Based Image Retrieval using DCT applied on Kekre’s Median Codebook”, International Journal of Imaging (IJI), Volume 2, No. A09, Autumn 2009, ISSN 0974-0627. Available online at. http://www.ceser.res.in/ceserp/index.php/iji/issue/view/72.
24 24. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “New Fast Improved Codebook Generation Algorithm for Color Images using Vector Quantization,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol.1, No.1, pp.: 67-77, September 2008.
25 25. H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, “Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm for Color Images using Vector Quantization,” International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.: 7-12, Jan 2009.
Dr. H. B. Kekre
SVKM's NMIMS University - India
Associate Professor Sudeep D.Thepade
SVKM's NMIMS University - India
sudeepthepade@gmail.com
Miss Nikita Bhandari
SVKM's NMIMS University - India