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Learning of Soccer Player Agents Using a Policy Gradient Method : Coordination Between Kicker and Receiver During Free Kicks
Harukazu Igarashi, Koji Nakamura, Seiji Ishihara
Pages - 1 - 13     |    Revised - 31-03-2011     |    Published - 04-04-2011
Volume - 2   Issue - 1    |    Publication Date - March / April 2011  Table of Contents
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KEYWORDS
Reinforcement Learning, Soccer Simulation, Policy Gradient, Multiagent
ABSTRACT
As an example of multi-agent learning in soccer games of the RoboCup 2D Soccer Simulation League, we dealt with a learning problem between a kicker and a receiver when a direct free kick is awarded just outside the opponent's penalty area. We propose how to use a heuristic function to evaluate an advantageous target point for safely sending/receiving a pass and scoring. The heuristics include an interaction term between a kicker and a receiver to intensify their coordination. To calculate the interaction term, we let a kicker/receiver agent have a receiver's/kicker's action decision model to predict a receiver's/kicker's action. Parameters in the heuristic function can be learned by a kind of reinforcement learning called the policy gradient method. Our experiments show that if the two agents do not have the same type of heuristics, the interaction term based on prediction of a teammate's decision model leads to learning a master-servant relation between a kicker and a receiver, where a receiver is a master and a kicker is a servant.
CITED BY (6)  
1 Leskelä, C. L. H. (2014). Learning for RoboCup Soccer.
2 Oliveira, M. A. P. D. (2012). High level coordination and decision making of a simulated robotic soccer team.
3 Igarashi, H., Fukuoka, H., & Ishihara, S. (2011). Policy Gradient Approach for Learning of Soccer Player Agents. In Intelligent Control and Computer Engineering (pp. 137-148). Springer Netherlands.
4 Almeida, F., Lau, N., & Reis, L. P. (2010). A Survey on Coordination Methodologies for Simulated Robotic Soccer Teams. In MALLOW.
5 Igarashi, H., Fukuoka, H., & Ishihara, S. (2010). Learning of soccer player agents using a policy gradient method: pass selection. In Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (Vol. 1).
6 Igarashi, H., Masaki, J., Suzuki, T., Tonegawa, N., Sano, N., Imaizumi, T., ... & Fukuoka, H. Fifty-Storms: Team Description 2009.
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Professor Harukazu Igarashi
Shibaura Institute of Technology - Japan
arashi50@sic.shibaura-it.ac.jp
Mr. Koji Nakamura
Shibaura Institute of Technology - Japan
Professor Seiji Ishihara
Kinki University - Japan