Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

(344.05KB)
This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.

PUBLICATIONS BY COUNTRIES

Top researchers from over 74 countries worldwide have trusted us because of quality publications.

United States of America
United Kingdom
Canada
Australia
Malaysia
China
Japan
Saudi Arabia
Egypt
India
On the Analysis of the Laminar to Turbulent Flow Patterns in the Treatment of a Patient Receiving Oxygen
Navarun Gupta, Lawrence Hmurcik, Manan Joshi, Bhushan Dharmadhikari
Pages - 23 - 29     |    Revised - 30-11-2010     |    Published - 20-12-2010
Volume - 1   Issue - 2    |    Publication Date - December 2010  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Laminar , Turbulent, HeOx
ABSTRACT
For a fluid, the transition from laminar to turbulent flow is a function of the fluid’s speed, direction, applied pressure, pipe length, pipe radius, fluid viscosity, and fluid density. For human breathing, all of these parameters are generally beyond control, except for the fluid\'s density and viscosity. If the human has trouble breathing, laminar flow is preferred since the person does less work for each breath. In our analysis, the pipe is the airway (or breathing tube) from lips to bifurcation; the throat/pipe radius is known or can be determined; the differential pressure is the excess pressure above or below atmospheric pressure; fluid flow rate is the person’s tidal lung volume divided by the breathing rate. We analyze 13 widely different humans (with differing values for throat length, radius, etc.) to see the effect of breathing two different fluids: air (20% oxygen, 80% nitrogen) and HeOx (20% oxygen, 80% helium). The onset of turbulent flow occurs for the critical radius, and this is calculated for each patient. For 12 patients, the critical radius is much smaller than the throat/tube radius, if HeOx is used--the flow is laminar. For all patients breathing air, the critical radius is larger than the throat/tube radius--the flow is turbulent. Thus, HeOx is shown to be superior in treating patients with breathing problems.
1 Google Scholar 
2 CiteSeerX 
3 refSeek 
4 Scribd 
5 SlideShare 
6 PDFCAST 
7 PdfSR 
1 J. Duffin, “Physics for Anesthetists”, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, ISBN 0<398<06906<9, Ch. 10, p 160<171 (1976).
2 P. Davis and G. Kenny, “Basic Physics Measurements in Anesthesia”, 5th ed., Butterworth< Heinemann, NY, ISBN 0<7506<4828<7, Ch. 2, p 12<17, (2003).
3 J. Guttmann, L. Ebenhard, B. Fabry, W. Bertschmann, G. Wolff, “Continuous calculation of intratracheal pressure in tracheally intubated patients”, Anesthesiology,79(3): 503<513 (1993).
4 W. Hughes and J. Brighton, “Fluid Dynamics, Schaum’s Outline Series”, McGraw
5 L. McIntosh,” Essentials of Nurse Anesthesia”, McGraw
6 R. Venn, “Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)”, New England Journal of Medicine, 342: 1301<1308 (2000).
7 J. West,” Respiratory Physiology,” 7th ed., Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, Philadelphia, ISBN 13< 978<0<7817<5152<0 (2005).
8 J. Dorsch and S. Dorsch,” Understanding Anesthesia Equipment,” 4th ed., Williams and Wilkins, ISBN 0<683<30487<9, Ch. 6, p 185 (1999).
9 G. Neudeck and R. Pierret,” Field Effect Devices, Modular Series on Solid State Devices”, 6, 2nd ed., Addison
10 N. Petrucci and W. Iacovelli, “Ventilation with smaller tidal volumes: a quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials”, International Anesthesia Research Society, 99:193<200 (2004).
11 J. Chevrolet, “Helium and mixtures with oxygen in the intensive care unit”, Critical Care, 5:179< 181(2001).
12 J. Chevrolet, "Helium and mixtures with oxygen in the intensive care unit," Critical Care, 5: 179< 181(2001).
13 N. Yahagi, K. Kumon, H. Tanigami, Y. Watanabe and J. Matsui, “Helium/oxygen breathing Improved hypoxemia after cardiac surgery: case reports”, Anesthesia Analog, 80: 1042<1045 (1995).
14 J. Graf and J. Marini, “Do airway secretions play an underappreciated role in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)”, Current Opinion in Critical Care. 14(1): 44<49 (2008).
15 V. Rangachari, I. Sundararajan, V. Sumathi, and K. Kumar, “Laryngeal sequelae following prolonged intubation: a prospective study”, Indian Journal of Critical Medicine, 10(3):171<175 (2006).
16 Y. Fujino, A. Uchiyama, T. Mashimo, and M. Nishamura, “Spontaneously breathing lung model comparison of breathing between automatic tube compensation and pressure support”, Respiratory Care, 48, ( 1):38<45 (2003)
Dr. Navarun Gupta
University of Bridgeport - United States of America
navarung@bridgeport.edu
Dr. Lawrence Hmurcik
University of Bridgeport - United States of America
Mr. Manan Joshi
University of Bridgeport - United States of America
Mr. Bhushan Dharmadhikari
University of Bridgeport - United States of America