Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
Wireless Sensor Network Simulators: A Survey and Comparisons
Harsh Sundani, Haoyue Li, Vijay Devabhaktuni, Mansoor Alam, Prabir Bhattacharya
Pages - 249 - 265     |    Revised - 31-01-2011     |    Published - 08-02-2011
Volume - 2   Issue - 6    |    Publication Date - January / February  Table of Contents
Wireless sensor networks, Simulator, Emulator, Comparison, Performance evaluation
Simulation tools for wireless sensor networks are increasingly being used to study sensor webs and to test new applications and protocols in this evolving research field. There is always an overriding concern when using simulation that the results may not reflect accurate behavior. It is therefore essential to know the strengths and weaknesses of these simulators. This paper provides a comprehensive survey and comparisons of various popular sensor network simulators with a view to help researchers choose the best simulator available for a particular application environment. It also provides a detailed comparison describing the pros and cons of each simulator.
CITED BY (64)  
1 Thangaraj, M., & Anuradha, S. A Study on Energy Model Prototyping in Various Simulators of WSN.
2 Raj, C., & Sukumaran, R. Modeling UWSN Simulators–A Taxonomy.
3 Nanhao, Z. H. U. PHD THÈSE.
4 Sethi, A., Saini, J. P., & Bisht, M. Article: Wireless Ad hoc Network Simulators: Analysis of Characterstic Features, Scalability, Effectiveness and Limitations}. International Journal of Applied, 5, 17-22.
5 Gädeke, T., Schmid, J., Anselm, T., Stork, W., & Müller-Glaser, K. D. A Simulation Environment for PDR-aided Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks.
6 Hashmi, S. U., Ajmal, A., Akhter, A., Khalid, S., & Manzoor, W. Application Layer Time Synchronization Utilizing Symbol Timing Recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks.
7 Bohrer, V., Fernandes, R., Webber, T., & Marcon, C. WiNeS-A Flexible Framework for Wireless Network Description and Simulation.
8 Dural, D., & Özmen, A. Developing A Parallel Simulator For Distributed Online Gas Sensor Systems.
9 Ali, Y. R., Kaltiokallio, O., Jäntti, R., & Björkbom, M. Wireless Sensor Network Evaluation Tools Development–Simulation–Experimentation–and–Validation.
10 Mekki, K., Derigent, W., Zouinkhi, A., Rondeau, E., & Abdelkrim, M. N. Improvement of counter-based broadcasting scheme for long communicating material lifetime. In International Conference on Automation, Control, Engineering & Computer Science, ACECS’2014.
11 Bhatt, M. N., & Kathiriya, D. Comarison and Analysis of Simulators for Ad hoc Wireless Networks.
12 Baz, M., & Pearce, D. A. An introduction to DANSE. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual PostGraduate Symposium on the Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting, PGNet (Vol. 11, pp. 27-28).
13 Patel, T. (2010). New Fault Injection Approach for Network on Chip. International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication, 4(3), 219-234.
14 Pierzchlewicz, J. (2011). Using GPGPU to Speed Up Simulators for Wireless Sensor Networks (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Computer Science, University of York).
15 Khan, M. Z., Askwith, B., Bouhafs, F., & Asim, M. (2011, March). Limitations of simulation tools for large-scale wireless sensor networks. In Advanced Information Networking and Applications (WAINA), 2011 IEEE Workshops of International Conference on (pp. 820-825). IEEE.
16 Sarkar, S., Stankovic, L., & Andonovic, I. (2012). Protocol design for farm animal monitoring using simulation. In Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks (pp. 126-138). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
17 Zhu, J. (2012). Hybrid Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University Ottawa).
18 Nadesh, R. K., Malewar, A. K., & Singh, V. (2012). A Comparative Study of Simulation tools for implementing and improving energy efficiency of a Wireless Sensor Node. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 3(5).
19 Uwase, M. P., Nguyen, L. T., Tiberghien, J., Steenhaut, K., & Dricot, J. M. (2012, September). Design Hints for didactic Simulators. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning. IEEE Operations Center.
20 Sethi, A., Saini, J. P., & Bisht, M. (2012). Wireless adhoc network simulators: Analysis of characterstic features, scalability, effectiveness and limitations. International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS), 5(9).
21 Mikhaylov, K., & Tervonen, J. (2012, October). Novel energy consumption model for simulating wireless sensor networks. In Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2012 4th International Congress on (pp. 15-21). IEEE.
22 Venkata, P. T., Nambi, S. A. U., Prasad, R. V., & Niemegeers, I. (2012). Bond graph modeling for energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks. Computer, (9), 31-38.
23 Khan, A. R., Bilal, S. M., & Othman, M. (2012, November). A performance comparison of open source network simulators for wireless networks. In Control System, Computing and Engineering (ICCSCE), 2012 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 34-38). IEEE.
24 Dhurandher, S. K., Obaidat, M. S., & Gupta, M. (2012). An acoustic communication based AQUA-GLOMO simulator for underwater networks. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, 2(1), 1-14.
25 Musznicki, B., & Zwierzykowski, P. (2012). Survey of simulators for wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing, 5(3), 23-50.
26 Leelavathi, G., Shaila, K., Venugopal, K. R., & Patnaik, L. M. (2013). design issues on software aspects and simulation tools for wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications, 5(2), 47.
27 Zhu, N. (2013). Simulation and optimization of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (Doctoral dissertation, Ecully, Ecole centrale de Lyon).
28 Boyaci, A., Ata, F., & Balik, H. H. (2013). Telsiz Duyarga Aglarda Kullanilan Yönlendirme Tekniklerinin Enerji Verimliligi Açisindan Karsilastirmasi. Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(1).
29 Ramdani, M. (2013). problèmes de sécurité dans les réseaux de capteurs avec prise en charge de l’énergie (Doctoral dissertation, Université Bouira).
30 Chiu, H. T., Yen, C. C., & Wang, J. S. (2013, December). A Framework of Temporal Data Retrieval for Unreliable WSNs Using Distributed Fountain Codes. In Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN), 2013 IEEE Ninth International Conference on (pp. 389-394). IEEE.
31 Khehra, E. S. S., & Singla, E. A. (2013). Performance Analysis of Broadcast Based Mobile Adhoc Routing Protocols AODV and DSDV. international journal of computer science, 1(4).
32 Shah, P. (2013). virtual coordinate based techniques for wireless sensor networks: a simulation tool and localization & planarization algorithms (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University).
33 Arbula, D., & Lenac, K. (2013). Pymote: High Level Python Library for Event-Based Simulation and Evaluation of Distributed Algorithms. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2013.
34 Harvey, P., & Sventek, J. (2013, April). Wireless sensor network simulation with Xen. In Proceedings of the 46th Annual Simulation Symposium (p. 4). Society for Computer Simulation International.
35 Mekki, K., Zouinkhi, A., & Abdelkrim, M. N. (2013, May). Simulation Study of FELGossiping protocol performance for active security system. In Advanced Logistics and Transport (ICALT), 2013 International Conference on (pp. 135-140). IEEE.
36 Fardi, H. S. A. (2013). Balanced intra-cluster multi-hop routing algorithm based on forwarding restriction angle (B-IMRA) in wireless sensor networks (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi MARA).
37 ???, ???, & ???. (2013). ?????????????. ??????, 26(7), 1019-1024.
38 Verma, D., & Kaur, A. (2013). Performance Comparison of QoS Based Routing Protocols MBRR, REAR and SPEED for Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 7.
39 Bilalb, S. M., & Othmana, M. (2013). A Performance Comparison of Network Simulators for Wireless Networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1307.4129.
40 Battista, E., Casola, V., Mazzocca, N., Nardone, R., & Marrone, S. (2013, October). A Compositional Modelling Approach for Large Sensor Networks Design. In P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC), 2013 Eighth International Conference on (pp. 422-429). IEEE.
41 Ovaliadis, K., & Savage, N. (2013). Underwater Sensor Network Simulation Tool (USNeT). International Journal of Computer Applications, 71(22).
42 Fortino, G., Greco, R., & Guerrieri, A. (2013, June). Modeling and evaluation of the building management framework based on the Castalia WSN simulator. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD), 2013 IEEE 17th International Conference on (pp. 668-674). IEEE.
43 Luo, J., Yu, L., Zhang, D., Xia, Z., & Chen, W. (2013). A New Link Quality Estimation Mechanism Based on LQI in WSN. Information Technology Journal, 12(8), 1626-1631.
44 Mekki, K., Zouinkhi, A., & Abdelkrim, M. N. (2013). Fault-tolerant and QoS based Network Layer for Security Management. TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication Computing Electronics and Control), 11(2), 363-372.
45 Battista, E., Casola, V., Marrone, S., Mazzocca, N., Nardone, R., & Vittorini, V. (2013, October). An integrated lifetime and network quality model of large WSNS. In Measurements and Networking Proceedings (M&N), 2013 IEEE International Workshop on (pp. 132-137). IEEE.
46 Mekki, K., Derigent, W., Rondeau, E., Zouinkhi, A., & Abdelkrim, M. N. (2013, October). Multi-hop counter based data dissemination protocol for communicating materials. In Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on (pp. 45-52). IEEE.
47 Grang, N., & Gupta, A. (2013). Wireless sensors network: An overview. International Journal of Modern Computer Science (IJMCS).
48 Chhimwal, P., Rai, D. S., & Rawat, D. (2013). Comparison Between Different Wireless Sensor Simulation Tools. IOSR Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, 5(2), 54-60.
49 Schmitt, C., Freitag, A., & Carle, G. (2013, October). CoMaDa: An adaptive framework with graphical support for Configuration, Management, and Data handling tasks for wireless sensor networks. In Network and Service Management (CNSM), 2013 9th International Conference on (pp. 211-218). IEEE.
50 Hamedheidari, S., & Rafeh, R. (2013). A novel agent-based approach to detect sinkhole attacks in wireless sensor networks. Computers & Security, 37, 1-14.
51 Jambli, M. N. (2014). Reducing energy consumption in mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.
52 Brito Filho, E. R. D. (2014). Aplicando a técnica de simulação hardware-in-the-loop no desenvolvimento de um simulador híbrido para testbeds de redes de sensores sem fio.
53 Gädeke, T. (2014). Präzise und skalierbare Lokalisierung in drahtlosen ad-hoc Netzwerken. tredition.
54 T omas, B., Tsai, H. M., & Boban, M. (2014, December). Simulating vehicular visible light communication: Physical radio and MAC modeling. In Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC), 2014 IEEE (pp. 222-225). IEEE.
55 Du, W., Mieyeville, F., Navarro, D., O’Connor, I., & Carrel, L. (2014). Modeling and simulation of networked low-power embedded systems: a taxonomy. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2014(1), 1-12.
56 Khurana, M., Thalore, R., Raina, V., & Jha, M. K. (2014, November). Energy Modeling of ML-MAC Wireless Sensor Network Protocol. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies (p. 55). ACM.
57 Butt, T. A. (2014). Provision of adaptive and context-aware service discovery for the Internet of Things (Doctoral dissertation, © Talal Ashraf Butt).
58 Diallo, O., Rodrigues, J. J., Sene, M., & Lloret, J. (2014). Simulation framework for real-time database on WSNs. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 39, 191-201.
59 Mekki, K., Derigent, W., Zouinkhi, A., Rondeau, E., & Abdelkrim, M. N. (2014, August). Data Dissemination Algorithms for Communicating Materials using Wireless Sensor Networks. In Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud), 2014 International Conference on (pp. 230-237). IEEE.
60 Kasraoui, M., Cabani, A., & Chafouk, H. (2014, June). IKEv2 authentication exchange model in NS-2. In Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C), 2014 International Symposium on (pp. 1074-1077). IEEE.
61 Prist, M., Longhi, S., Monteriu, A., Giuggioloni, F., & Freddi, A. (2015, June). An integrated simulation environment for Wireless Sensor Networks. In World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 2015 IEEE 16th International Symposium on a (pp. 1-3). IEEE.
62 Delgado Román, M. D. C., González Sabaté, J., & Sierra García, C. (2015). Organisation-based co-ordination of wireless sensor networks.
63 Younan, M., Khattab, S., & Bahgat, R. (2015). An Integrated Testbed Environment for the Web of Things. ICNS 2015, 83.
64 Nayyar, A., & Singh, R. (2015). A Comprehensive Review of Simulation Tools for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Journal of Wireless Networking and Communications, 5(1), 19-47.
1 Google Scholar
2 CiteSeerX
3 refSeek
4 Socol@r
5 Scribd
6 WorldCat
7 SlideShare
8 PdfSR
1 M. Ilyas and I. Mahgoub, Handbook of sensor networks: compact wireless and wired sensing systems, BocaRaton, FL., CRC Press, 2004.
2 J. Liu, et. al., “Simulation modeling of large-scale ad-hoc sensor networks,” European Simulation Interoperability Workshop 2001, London, England, June 2001,
3 I.F. Akyildiz and W. Su and Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-116, Aug. 2002.
4 David Curren, “A survey of simulation in sensor networks,” University of Binghamton, NY, 2005.
5 John Heidemann, Kevin Mills, Sri Kumar, Expanding Confidence in Network Simulations.
6 E. Egea-López, J. Vales-Alonso, A. S. Martínez-Sala, P. Pavón-Mariño, J. García-Haro, Simulation Tools for Wireless Sensor Networks
7 Mekni, M. Moulin, A Survey on Sensor Webs Simulation Tools.
8 WeiChung,Hu MingLun, Lee TzungShian, Tsai Hewijin, Christine Jiau, A GUI Simulation Model in Supporting Embedded Software Design
9 David M. Nicol, Scalability of Network Simulators Revisited
10 Ns-2 [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
11 T. Issariyakul and E. Hossain, Introduction to network simulator ns2, Springer, Nov. 2008.
12 P. Levis, N. Lee, M. Welsh, and D. Culler, “TOSSIM: Accurate and scalable simulation of entire tinyos applications,” 1st ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Los Angeles,CA, Nov. 2003
13 P. Levis and N. Lee, Simulating tinyos networks [Online]. Available:http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/pal/research/tossim.html. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
14 L. F. Perrone and D. Nicol, “A scalable simulator for TinyOS applications,” Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 679-687, Dec. 2002.
15 TinyOS, an open-source operating system for wireless embedded sensor networks [Online].Available: http://www.tinyos.net/. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
16 NesC, the sensor network programming language on TinyOS operating system [Online]. Available:http://nescc.sourceforge.net/. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
17 TOSSIM [Online]. Available: http://docs.tinyos.net/index.php/TOSSIM. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
18 P. Levis, TOSSIM: Simulating TinyOS Networks [Online]. Available:http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pal/research/tossim.html. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
19 X. Zeng, R. Bagrodia, and M. Gerla, “GloMoSim: A library for parallel simulation of large-scale wireless networks,” SIGSIM Simulation Digest, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 154-161, 1998.
20 GloMoSim [Online]. Available: http://pcl.cs.ucla.edu/projects/glomosim/. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
21 S. Dhurandher, S. Misra, M. Obaidat, and S. Khairwal, “UWSim: A simulator for underwater sensor networks,” Simulation, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 327-338, 2008.
22 J. Cui., J. Kong, M. Gerla and S. Zhou, “Challenges: Building scalable mobile underwater wireless sensor networks for aquatic applications,” UCONN CSE Technical Report: UbiNET-TR05-02,University of Connecticut, USA, 2005.
23 R. Jurdak, C. V. Lopes and P. Baldi, “Battery lifetime estimation and optimization for underwater sensor networks,” Sensor Network Operations, May 2006. pp. 397–420., Wiley IEEE.
24 Ben L. Titzer, Daniel K. Lee, Jens Palsberg, “Avrora: Scalable sensor network simulation with precise timing,” 4th Int. Conf. on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2005.
25 Avrora [Online]. Available: http://compilers.cs.ucla.edu/avrora. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.A. Dunkels, B. Gronvall, and T. Voigt, “Contiki - A lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors,” Proceedings of the 29th Annual IEEE international Conference on Local Computer Networks, Tampa, FL., Nov.2004, pp. 455-462.
26 F. Osterlind, A. Dunkels, J. Eriksson, N. Finne, and T. Voigt, “Cross-level sensor network simulation with COOJA,” 1st IEEE International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications, pp. 8, Tampa, Florida, USA, 2006.
27 F. Osterlind, “A sensor network simulator for the Contiki OS,” Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Tech. Rep. T2006-05, Feb. 2006.
28 P. J. Marrón, et. al., “COOJA/MSPSim: Interoperability testing for wireless sensor networks,” 2nd Int. Conf. on Simulation Tools and Techniques, page 7, Rome, Italy, Mar. 2009.
29 S. Park, A. Savvides, and M. Srivastava, “SensorSim: A simulation framework for sensor networks,”3rd ACM Int. Workshop on Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems,Boston, MA, Aug. 2000.
30 S. Park, A. Savvides, and M. B. Srivastava, “Simulating networks of wireless sensors,” Winter Simulation Conference, Arlington, Virginia, Dec. 2001.A. Boulis, “Castalia, a simulator for wireless sensor networks and body area networks,” version 2.0,User’s manual, May 2009 [Online]. Available: http://castalia.npc.nicta.com.au/. Retrieved:02/04/2010.B. Boulis, “Castalia: Revealing pitfalls in designing distributed algorithms in WSN,” 5th Int. Conf. on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 2007.
31 Alexander Kr¨oller, Dennis Pfisterer, S´andor P. Fekete, and Stefan Fischer, Algorithms and Simulation Methods for Topology-Aware Sensor Networks.
32 A] Kr¨oller, D. Pfisterer, C. Buschmann, S. P. Fekete, S. Fischer, Shawn: A new approach to simulating wireless sensor networks.
33 L. Girod, et al., “EmStar: An environment for developing wireless embedded systems software,” USENIX Technical Conference, Boston, MA, June 2004.
34 L. Girod, et. al., “EmStar: An environment for developing wireless embedded systems software,” Technical report, Center for Embedded Networked Sensing, University of California, Los Angeles, CENS Technical Report 009, 2003.
35 L. Girod, et. al., “Emstar: A software environment for developing and deploying heterogeneous sensor-actuator networks,” ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, vol. 3,no. 3, article 13, Aug. 2007.
36 Familiar Linux [Online]. Available: http://www.handhelds.org. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
37 A] Sobeih and J. C. Hou, “A simulation framework for sensor networks in J-Sim,” Tech.Report UIUCDCS-R-2003- 2386, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, November 2003.
38 J-sim [Online]. Available: http://nsr.bioeng.washington.edu/jsim/. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
39 G. Chen, J. Branch, M. Pflug, L. Zhu, and B. Szymanski, “SENSE: A sensor network simulator,” Dept. of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2004.
40 SENSE [Online]. Available: http://www.ita.cs.rpi.edu/sense/index.html. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
41 P. Baldwin, S. Kohli, E. Lee, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “VisualSense: Visual modeling for wireless and sensor network systems,” Technical Memorandum UCB/ERL M05/25, University of California, Berkeley, CA, April 2004.
42 VisualSense [Online]. Available: http://ptolemy.eecs.berkeley.edu/visualsense/. Retrieved:02/04/2010.
43 G. Simon, P. Volgyesi, M. Maroti, and A. Ledeczi “Simulation-based optimization of communication protocols for large-scale wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, Mar. 2003. Prowler [Online]. Available:http://www.isis.vanderbilt.edu/projects/nest/prowler/index.html. Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
44 JProwler [Online]. Available: http://www.isis.vanderbilt.edu/projects/nest/jprowler/index.html.Retrieved: 02/04/2010.
45 http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/.
Mr. Harsh Sundani
Midwest MicroDevices - United States of America
Mr. Haoyue Li
University of Toledo - United States of America
Associate Professor Vijay Devabhaktuni
University of Toledo - United States of America
Professor Mansoor Alam
University of Toledo - United States of America
Professor Prabir Bhattacharya
University of Cincinnati - United States of America