Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

(709.66KB)
This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
Towards A More Secure Web Based Tele Radiology System: A Steganographic Approach
Kamau Gabriel Macharia, Wilson Cheruiyot, Waweru Mwangi
Pages - 55 - 75     |    Revised - 30-11-2018     |    Published - 31-12-2018
Volume - 12   Issue - 4    |    Publication Date - December 2018  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Imperceptibility, Steganalysis, Steganographic, Radiologist, Decibels.
ABSTRACT
While it is possible to make a patient's medical images available to a practicing radiologist online e.g. through open network systems inter connectivity and email attachments, these methods don't guarantee the security, confidentiality and tamper free reliability required in a medical information system infrastructure. The possibility of securely and covertly transmitting such medical images remotely for clinical interpretation and diagnosis through a secure steganographic technique was the focus of this study.

We propose a method that uses an Enhanced Least Significant Bit (ELSB) steganographic insertion method to embed a patient's Medical Image (MI) in the spatial domain of a cover digital image and his/her health records in the frequency domain of the same cover image as a watermark to ensure tamper detection and nonrepudiation. The ELSB method uses the Marsenne Twister (MT) Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) to randomly embed and conceal the patient's data in the cover image. This technique significantly increases the imperceptibility of the hidden information to steganalysis thereby enhancing the security of the embedded patient's data.

In measuring the effectiveness of the proposed method, the study adopted the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology, a paradigm for problem solving in computing and Information Systems (IS) that involves design and implementation of artefacts and methods considered novel and the analytical testing of the performance of such artefacts in pursuit of understanding and enhancing an existing method, artefact or practice.

The fidelity measures of the stego images from the proposed method were compared with those from the traditional Least Significant Bit (LSB) method in order to establish the imperceptibility of the embedded information. The results demonstrated improvements of between 1 to 2.6 decibels (dB) in the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), and up to 0.4 MSE ratios for the proposed method.

CITED BY (0)  
1 Nyeem, Hussain, Wageeh, Boles, & Boyd, "Colin A review of medical image watermarking requirements for teleradiology". Journal of Digital Imaging, 26(2), pp. 326- 343, 2013.
2 Madennis Michael. Security in Teleradiology Systems. University of Arizona. 2009
3 Kobayashi. L and S. S. Furuie. "Proposal for DICOM multiframe medical image integrity and authenticity," Journal of Digital Imaging, vol. 22, pp. 71-83,2009
4 [4] R. Chandramouli, N. Memon."Analysis of LSB Based Image Steganography Techniques. IEEE pp. Springer Verlag, 347-350. 2011.
5 Kalaivanan., Ananth. and Manikandan. "A Survey on Digital Image Steganography", International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS) 2015,
6 Hemang A . Prajapati1, Dr. Nehal G. Chitaliya," Secured and Robust Dual Image Steganography: A Survey", International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering 2015
7 Sedighi, V., Fridrich, J., & Cogranne, R. "Toss that BOSSbase, Alice!. Electronic Imaging, 2016 (8), 1-9.
8 Bender, W. 'Techniques for Data Hiding', IBM Systems Journal, 35(3&4), pp 313-336.1996
9 G. Coatrieux, L. Lecornu, B. Sankur, and C. Roux."A Review of Image Watermarking Applications in Healthcare," in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS '06. 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, 2006, pp. 4691-4694.
10 C. Cachin." An Information-Theoretic Model for Steganography", in proceeding 2nd Information Hiding Workshop, vol. 1525, pp. 306-318.2008
11 Neil, F. J. and Jajodia, S. "Exploring Steganography: Seeing the Unseen', IEEE Computer, 31(2), pp 26-34.1998.
12 Gabriel Macharia Kamau, Stephen Kimani, and Waweru Mwangi, "An enhanced Least Significant Bit Steganographic Method for Information Hiding ", Journal of Information Engineering and Applications, Vol. 2, No.9, pp. 1-12, 2012
13 Krenn, J.R., "Steganography and Steganalysis". Accessed on 2nd March 2018. Available on http://www.krenn.nl/univ/cry/steg/article.pdf
14 Steganalysis: Detecting LSB Steganographic Techniques T Sarkar, S Sanyal - arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.5119, 2014
15 Cooper, Curtis . "Mersenne Prime Number discovery!". Mersenne Research, Inc. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
16 Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura. "Mersenne twister: a 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator" ACM Trans. on Modeling and Computer Simulation, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 3-30, Jan. 1998.
17 Makoto Matsumoto and Y. Kurita,."Twisted GFSR generators" ACM Trans. On Modeling and Computer Simulation, vol. 2, pp. 179-194, 1992.
18 Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura, "Dynamic Creation of Pseudorandom Number Generators", Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 1998, Springer, 2000, pp 56- 69.
19 Archana Jagannatam. " Mersenne Twister - A Pseudo Random Number Generator and its Variants. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 32(1):1-16.2013.
20 Mutsuo Saito and Makoto Matsumoto, "SIMD-oriented Fast Mersenne Twister: a 128-bit Pseudorandom Number Generator", Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, Springer, 2008, pp. 607 - 622.
21 Sravanthi, G.S.; Mrs.B.Sunitha Devi, S.M.Riyazoddin& M.Janga Reddy, "A Spatial Domain Image Steganography Technique Based on Plane Bit Substitution Method", Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Graphics & Vision, Volume 12 Issue 15 Version 1.0. 2012.
22 Prabhishek Singh, R S Chadha. "A Survey of Digital Watermarking Techniques, Applications and Attacks", International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT). pp 683-689. 2013.
23 Iivari, J. and Venable, J. Action research and design science research - seemingly similar but decisively similar, In Proceedings to the 17th European Conference on Information Systems, Verona. http://www.ecis2009.it/papers/ecis2009-0424.pdf, accessed on September 14th 2014.
24 Vaishnavi, V. and Kuechler, W." Design Science Research in Information Systems. DESRIST.org. Available at: http://desrist.org/desrist. Accessed on October 26th ,2016
25 Kuechler, B., & Vaishnavi, V."The emergence of design research in information systems in north america. Journal of Design Research, 7(1), 1-16.2008
26 Alturki, Ahmad and Gable, Guy G., "THEORIZING IN DESIGN SCIENCE RESEARCH: AN ABSTRACTION LAYERS FRAMEWORK" (2014). PACIS 2014 Proceedings. Paper 126.http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2014/126 accessed on December 17th 2017
27 Betsy Samuel1, Vidya N.2." Wavelet Based Watermarking Approach of Hiding Patient Information in Medical Image for Medical Image Authentication". International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research. PP 453-458, 2015
28 Kumar Ravi and Rattan Munish,." International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering." Volume 2, Issue 11. Pp 137-134, 2012
29 Kavitha S.and Thyagharajan K. K,." A Survey on Quantitative Metrics for Assessing the Quality of Fused Medical Images. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 12(3): 282-293, 2016
30 Kethepalli Mallikarjuna, Kodati Satya Prasad and Makam Venkata Subramanyam. ." Image Compression and Reconstruction using Discrete Rajan Transform Based Spectral Sparsing". Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2016, 1, 59-67
31 Wang, Z. and Q. Li,. "Information content weighting for perceptual image quality assessment". IEEE T. Image Process., 20(5): 1185-1198. 2011
32 Yusnita Yusof and Othman O. Khalifa, . "Digital Watermarking For Digital Images Using Wavelet Transform. Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Telecommunications and Malaysia International Conference on Communications, pp.14-17, 2007
33 Wang, Z., Sheikh, H. R. & Bovik, A. C. "Non- reference perceptual quality assessment of JPEG compressed images. Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing, 1, 477-480. 2002
34 MEMON FARIDA , MUKHTIAR ALI UNAR, AND SHEERAZ MEMON." Image Quality Assessment for Performance Evaluation of Focus Measure Operators". Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, Volume 34, No. 4,pp 379-386, 2015
35 Horé Alin and Ziou Djemel,." International Conference on Pattern Recognition." IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICPR. 2010, pp 2366-2369.
Mr. Kamau Gabriel Macharia
School of Computer Science and Information Technology Dedan Kimathi University of Technology - Kenya
ngorosh2003@yahoo.com
Mr. Wilson Cheruiyot
School of Computer Science and Information Technology Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology - Kenya
Mr. Waweru Mwangi
School of Computer Science and Information Technology Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology - Kenya