Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

(196.61KB)
This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
Image Steganography Techniques: An Overview
Nagham Hamid, Abid Yahya, R. Badlishah Ahmad, Osamah M. Al-Qershi
Pages - 168 - 187     |    Revised - 15-05-2012     |    Published - 20-06-2012
Volume - 6   Issue - 3    |    Publication Date - June 2012  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Adaptive Steganography, Current Techniques, Image Files, Overview, Steganography, Taxonomy
ABSTRACT
Steganography is one of the methods used for the hidden exchange of information. It is the art and science of invisible communication, which strives to hide the existence of the communicated message. In this way, if successfully it is achieved, the message does not attract attention from eavesdroppers and attackers. Using steganography, information can be hidden in different embedding mediums, known as carriers. These carriers can be images, audio files, video files, and text files. The focus in this paper is on the use of an image file as a carrier, and hence, the taxonomy of current steganographic techniques for image files has been presented. These techniques are analyzed and discussed in terms of their ability to hide information in image files, the amount of the information that can be hidden, and the robustness to different image processing attacks.
CITED BY (80)  
1 Renza , D., Ballesteros , D. M., & Rincon, R. (2016 ) . Concealment method for steganography image pixel grayscale on color images . Engineering and Science , 12 ( 23) , 145-162.
2 Al-Dmour, H., & Al-Ani, A. (2016). Quality optimized medical image information hiding algorithm that employs edge detection and data coding. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 127, 24-43.
3 Khan, M., Jamil, A., Haleem, F., Zahoor, J., Muhammad, S., & Sung Wook, B. (2015). A Secure Method for Color Image Steganography using Gray-Level Modification and Multi-level Encryption. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS), 9(5), 1938-1962.
4 Azizifard, A., Qermezkon, M., & Farshidi, R. Information Steganography within 3D Images Using Residue Number System.
5 Muhammad, K., Ahmad, J., Sajjad, M., & Zubair, M. (2015). Secure Image Steganography using Cryptography and Image Transposition. arXiv preprint arXiv:1510.04413.
6 Muhammad, K., Sajjad, M., Mehmood, I., Rho, S., & Baik, S. W. (2015). A novel magic LSB substitution method (M-LSB-SM) using multi-level encryption and achromatic component of an image. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 1-27.
7 Al-Dmour, H., & Al-Ani, A. (2015, November). A Medical Image Steganography Method Based on Integer Wavelet Transform and Overlapping Edge Detection. In Neural Information Processing (pp. 436-444). Springer International Publishing.
8 Olaniyi, O. M., Arulogun, O. T., Omidiora, O. E., & Okediran, O. O. (2015). Implementing generic security requirements in e–voting using modified stegano–cryptographic approach. International Journal of Information and Computer Security, 7(1), 64-90.
9 Olaniyi, O. M., Arulogun, O. T., Omidiora, E. O., & Okediran, O. O. (2015). Enhanced Stegano-Cryptographic Model for Secure Electronic Voting. Journal of Information Engineering and Applications, 5(4), 1-15.
10 Badhan, S., & Juneja, M. (2015). A Novel Approach for Data Hiding in Color Images Using LSB Based Steganography with Improved Capacity and Resistance to Statistical Attacks. In Intelligent Computing, Communication and Devices (pp. 183-190). Springer India.
11 Mehndiratta, A. (2015). Data Hiding System Using Cryptography & Steganography: A Comprehensive Modern Investigation.
12 Wahab, O. F. A., Badawy, M. B., Elshakankiry, O. A., & El-sayed, H. S. (2015). Utilizations of Reversible Lossless Data Hiding Techniques in Video Sequences. Int. J. Com. Net. Teach, 3(1).
13 Din, R., Yusof, S. A. M., Amphawan, A., Hussain, H. S., Yaacob, H., Jamaludin, N., & Samsudin, A. (2015). Performance Analysis on Text Steganalysis Method Using A Computational Intelligence Approach. Proceeding of the Electrical Engineering Computer Science and Informatics, 2(1).
14 Deepa, S., & Umarani, R. (2015). A Prototype for Secure Information using Video Steganography. image, 4(8).
15 Liu, L., Chang, C. C., & Wang, A. (2015). Reversible data hiding scheme based on histogram shifting of n-bit planes. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 1-16.
16 Molaei Kermani , a. , Amir Masoud , mahr , & Abrahymnzhad . (2014 ) . Blind steganography based on Reed-Solomon codes and tables substituted with improved payload optimized embedded and resistance. Journal of Electrical Engineering , University of Tabriz , 43 ( 2 ) , 43-59.
17 Senaratne, H., Gunatilaka, P., Gamage, S., Gunarathna, U., & Vithana, Y. Information Hiding with Steganography.
18 Sadek, M. M., Khalifa, A. S., & Mostafa, M. G. (2014). Video steganography: a comprehensive review. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 1-32.
19 Kelash, H. M., Wahab, O. F. A., Elshakankiry, O. A., & El-sayed, H. S. (2014). Utilization of Steganographic Techniques in Video Sequences. International Journal of Computing and Network Technology, Sys, 2, 17-24.
20 Othman, J. A. (2014). Steganographic scheme to avoid statistical Steganalysis. J. Of College Of Education For Women, 25(1).
21 Al-Dmour, H., Al-Ani, A., & Nguyen, H. (2014, August). An efficient steganography method for hiding patient confidential information. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE (pp. 222-225). IEEE.
22 Agrawal, A., & Borikar, D. A. (2014). An approach to video steganography using novel substitution technique.
23 Kaur, S., Kaur, A., & Singh, K. (2014). A Survey of Image Steganography. IJRECE, 2(3), 102-105.
24 Priyanka, B. G., & Sathyanarayana, S. V. (2014, November). A steganographic system for embedding image and encrypted text. In Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I), 2014 International Conference on (pp. 1351-1355). IEEE.
25 Praneeta, G., & Pradeep, B. (2014, January). Security Analysis of Digital Stegno Images Using Genetic Algorithm. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2013 (pp. 277-283). Springer International Publishing.
26 Khosla, S., & Kaur, P. Secure Data Hiding Technique Using Video Steganography and Watermarking-A Review.
27 Olaniyi, O. M., Arulogun, O. T., Omidiora, E. O., & Okediran, O. O. Performance Assessment of an Enhanced Crystographic Model for Secure E-Voting.
28 Mehndiratta, A. Publication Procedure Topics.
29 Shinde, P., Palmal, A., & Singh, R. Digital Image Steganography-Then, Now & Analysis of its Techniques.
30 Juneja, M. (2014). High Capacity and Statistical Attacks Resistant Reversible Image Data Hiding Scheme using LSB Substitution. International Journal of Computer Applications, 92(12).
31 Juneja, M. (2014). High Capacity Information Hiding System for Encrypted Text Message Using Pixel Intensity Based LSB Substitution Technique. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 11(2), 159.
32 aldeen najim Alzubaidy, D. (2014). Paper of Nagham. pdf.
33 Agrawal, A., & Borikar, D. A. A Novel Approach to Video Steganography using Secured Multi-Channel Substitution.
34 Nashier, N., & Singhrova, A. An Steganography Implementation Based Upon Improved LSB Technique.
35 Zahedinia, M. S., & Ahmadi, H. (2014). Color Image Steganography Method based on Difference between Pixel Values in Tri-direction. Majlesi Journal of Multimedia Processing, 3(3).
36 Bhalchandra, B. D., Bhatnagar, V., Tomer, R., Singh, R., Saran, S. S., Asadullah, M., ... & Khan, S. Safety and Concealing Information Utilizing Combinatorial Data Hiding Proficiencies.
37 Manjunatha Reddy, H. S. (2014). Design of image steganographic systems for covert communication.
38 Ahmed, Z. H. (2014). Comparison of data hiding using LSB and DCT for image (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia).
39 Mostaghim, M., & Boostani, R. (2014, September). CVC: Chaotic visual cryptography to enhance steganography. In Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), 2014 11th International ISC Conference on (pp. 44-48). IEEE.
40 Sahu, M. (2014). Review of Image Steganography Techniques in Cloud Security.
41 Ramalingam, M., & Isa, N. A. M. (2014, October). A steganography approach for sequential data encoding and decoding in video images. In Computer, Control, Informatics and Its Applications (IC3INA), 2014 International Conference on (pp. 120-125). IEEE.
42 Ali, A. A., Abdellateef, B. A., & Seddik, A. H. (2014). Enhancing the Security of SMMWB Image Steganography Technique by using the Linked List structure (Cover Package Method). International Journal of Computer Applications, 90(7).
43 Molaei Kermani, and., Amir Masoud, honest, & Abrahymnzhad. (2014). Blind steganography based on Reed-Solomon codes and the substitution optimized embedded with improved payload and resistance. Journal of Electrical Engineering, University of Tabriz, 43 (2), 43-59.
44 Gayathri, C., & Kalpana, V. (2013). Study on Image Steganography Techniques. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Vol, 5.
45 Kovtun, VY , Hnatyuk, S. , & Kinzeryavyy , A. (2013) . Systematics modern methods of computer steganography . Safety information , 19 ( 3), 209-217.
46 Al-Bahadili, H. (2013). A Secure Block Permutation Image Steganography Algorithm. Submitted to the International Journal on Cryptography and Information Security (IJCIS) on 30th July.
47 Kelash, H. M., Abdel Wahab, O. F., Elshakankiry, O., & El-sayed, H. S. (2013, October). Hiding data in video sequences using steganography algorithms. In ICT Convergence (ICTC), 2013 International Conference on (pp. 353-358). IEEE.
48 Kumari, P., Kumar, C., & Preeyanshi, J. B. (2013). Data Security Using Image Steganography And Weighing Its Techniques. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(11).
49 Chugh, G. (2013). Image Steganography Techniques: A Review Article. acta technica corviniesis-Bulletin of engineering Tome VI July-September, 97-104.
50 AKTAS, H., & KALKAN, M. An Application of the Crystography.
51 Al-Bahadili, H. (2013). A Secure Block Permutation Image Teganography Algorithm. Submitted to the International Journal on Cryptography and Information Security (IJCIS) on 30th July.
52 Asole, S., & Mundada, M. (2013). A Survey on Securing Databases From Unauthorized Users. Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res, 2(4), 2-4.
53 Sharda, S., & Budhiraja, S. (2013). Performance Analysis of Image Steganography based on DWT and Arnold Transform. International Journal of Computer Applications, 69(21).
54 Sehgal, P., & Sharma, V. K. (2013). Eliminating Cover Image Requirement in Discrete Wavelet Transform based Digital Image Steganography. International Journal of Computer Applications, 68(3), 37-42.
55 Patil, A. U., Hingway, S. P., & Hingway, S. P. Nav view search.
56 Chee, A. (2013). Steganographic techniques on social media: investigation guidelines (Doctoral dissertation, Auckland University of Technology).
57 Sohag, S. A., Islam, D. M. K., & Islam, M. B. (2013). A Novel Approach for Image Steganography Using Dynamic Substitution and Secret Key. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) Volume-02, Issue-09.
58 Shah, H., Shinde, P., & Kukreja, J. (2013). Retouching Detection and Steganalysis. International Journal of Engineering Innovations and Research, 2(6), 487.
59 Ali, A. A., & Saad, A. H. S. (2013). New Image Steganography Method by Matching Secret Message with pixels of Cover Image (SMM). International Journal of Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Research (IJCSEITR), 3 (2), 1-10.
60 Saejung, S., Boondee, A., Preechasuk, J., & Chantrapornchai, C. (2013, September). On the comparison of digital image steganography algorithm based on DCT and wavelet. In Computer Science and Engineering Conference (ICSEC), 2013 International (pp. 328-333). IEEE.
61 Jassim, F. A. (2013). A Novel Robust Method to Add Watermarks to Bitmap Images by Fading Technique. arXiv preprint arXiv:1307.1166.
62 Arora, A., Neeru, M. N., & Taqdir, M. image steganography techniques: an overview.
63 Poongavanam, V., & Shamala, l. m. an enhanced difference pair mapping steganography method to improve embedding capacity.
64 FADHIL, J. A. (2013). A New Method for Improving the Capacity of Data Hiding in an Image Steganography.
65 Patil, H. H., & Hingway, S. P. Improved Way of Image Stegnography for JPEG2000 Compression Standard by Using EBCOT.
66 Rad, J. M. (2013). Intensity Adaptive LSB Method Applying a Revised Matching. International Journal of Computer Applications, 70(27).
67 Bedwal, T., & Kumar, M. (2013). An Enhanced and Secure Image Steganographic Technique Using RGB-Box Mapping.
68 Lal, G. J., Veena, V. K., & Soman, K. P. (2013). A Combined Crypto-steganographic Approach for Information Hiding in Audio Signals Using Sub-band Coding, Compressive Sensing and Singular Value Decomposition. In Security in Computing and Communications (pp. 52-62). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
69 Shihab, A. M., Mohammed, R. K., & Abed, W. M. (2013). evaluating the performance of the secure block permutation image steganography algorithm. international journal of network security & its applications, 5(5), 167.
70 Nagaty, K. A. (2013). Secret Sharing using Image Hashing. International Journal of Computer Applications, 73(20), 14-22.
71 Barmawi, A. M. (2013, November). Strengthening Dynamic Cell Spreading (DCS) image steganography. In Information and Network Security (ICINS 2013), 2013 International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IET.
72 Yunus, Y. A., Ab Rahman, S., & Ibrahim, J. (2013). Steganography: A Review of Information Security Research and Development in Muslim World. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 2(11), 122-128.
73 Kovtun, VY, Hnatiuk, S., & Kinzeryavyy, A. (2013). Systematics modern methods of computer steganography. Safety information, 19 (3), 209-217.
74 Mandal, P. C. (2012). Modern Steganographic technique: A survey. International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET), 3(9), 444-448.
75 Hamza, Y. A. Securing Image Steganogarphy Based on Visual Cryptography And Integer Wavelet Transform.
76 Goel, M., & Chaudhari, M. M. A Novel Approach for Data Hiding by integrating Steganography & Extended Visual Cryptography.
77 Singh, S., Gill, N., & Kaur, G. Identical Frames Based Video Steganography.
78 Goel, M., & Chaudhari, m. secured data hiding by using extended visual cryptography.
79 Hamid, N., Yahya, A., Ahmad, B., Al-Qershi, O. M., Najim, D., & Kanaan, L. (2012). Enhancing the Robustness of Digital Image Steganography Using ECC and Redundancy.
80 Rao, D. S., & Parihar, P. S. Embedding Approach of Audio Data in RGB Images Using Circle Equation.
1 Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
2 Google Scholar
3 CiteSeerX
4 refSeek
5 Scribd
6 slideshare
7 PdfSR
1 S.A. Halim and M.F.A Sani. “Embedding using spread spectrum image steganography with GF ( ),” in Proc. IMT-GT-ICMSA, 2010, pp. 659-666.
2 N.N. El-Emam. (2007). “Hiding a large amount of data with high security using steganography algorithm.” Computer Science. [On-line]. 3(4), pp. 223-232. Available: www.thescipub.com/pdf/10.3844/jcssp.2007.223.232 [Dec., 2011].
3 T. Morkel, J.H.P. Eloff, and M.S. Oliver. “An overview of image steganography.” in Proc. ISSA, 2005, pp. 1-11.
4 L. Chun-Shien. Multimedia security: steganography and digital watermarking techniques for protection of intellectual property. USA: Idea Group Publishing, 2005, pp. 1-253.
5 R.J. Anderson and F.A.P. Petitcolas. (1998, May). “On the limits of steganography.” IEEE Journal of Selected Area in Communications. [On line]. 16(4), pp. 474-481. Available: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/jsac98-limsteg.pdf [Jun., 2011].
6 I.J. Cox, M.L. Bloom, J.A. Fridrich, and T. Kalkert. Digital watermarking and steganography. USA: Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 2008, pp. 1-591.
7 N.F. Johnson and S. Jajodia. (1998, Feb.). “Exploring steganography: seeing the unseen.” IEEE Computer Journal. [On line]. 31(2), pp. 26-34. Available: http://www.jjtc.com/pub/r2026.pdf [Jun. 2011].
8 A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran and P.M. Kevitt. (2010). “Digital image steganography: survey and analysis of current methods.” Signal Processing Journal. [On line]. 90(3), pp. 727-752. Available: http://www.abbascheddad.net/Survey.pdf [Aug. 2011].
9 M. Fortrini. “Steganography and digital watermarking: A global view.” University of California, Davis. Available: http://lia.deis.unibo.it/Courses/RetiDiCalcolatori/Progetti00/fortini/project.pdf . [June 2011].
10 N. Provos and P. Honeyman. (2003, Jun.). “Hide and seek: An introduction to steganography.” IEEE Security and Privacy Journal. [On line], 1(3), pp. 32-44. Available: http://niels.xtdnet.nl/papers/practical.pdf [Jul., 2011].
11 Roderic, D. M. (1993): Component 2.0 – User Guide, [online] Available: http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rod/cplite/Manual.html [11] CLUSTALW[online], Available: http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/. [12] About mtDNA [online] Available: http://
12 N.F. Johnson. (1995, Nov.). “Steganography. Technical report.” Available: http://www.jjtc.com/pub/tr_95_11_nfj/ [Sep., 2011].
13 D. Sellars. “An introduction to steganography. Internet: http://www.cs.uct.ac.za/courses/CS400W/papers99/stego.html [Jul., 2011].
14 T. Jamil. (1999, Feb.). “Steganography: The art of hiding information in plain sight.” IEEE Potentials. [On line], 18(1), pp. 10-12. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=747237 [Sep., 2011].
15 S.B. Sadkhan. “Cryptography: Current status and future trends.” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Information & Communication Technologies, 2004, pp. 417-418.
16 P. Kruus, C. Scace, M. Heyman, and M. Mundy. (2003), “A survey of steganography techniques for image files.” Advanced Security Research Journal. [On line], 5(1), pp. 41-52. Available: http://www.isso.sparta.com/documents/asrjv5.pdf#page=47 [Oct., 2011].
17 M.S. Prasad, S. Naganjaneyulu, CH.G. Krishna, and C. Nagaraju. (2009, Oct.). “A novel information hiding technique for security by using image steganography.” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Informaion Technology. [On line]. 8(1), pp. 35-39. Available: www.jatit.org/volumes/research-papers/Vol8No1/6Vol8No1.pdf [ Apr. 2011].
18 M. Kharazi, H.T. Sencar, and N. Memon. (2004, Apr.). “Image steganography: Concepts and practice.” WSPC/Lecture Notes Series: 9in x 6in, [On line], pp. 1-49. Available: http://iwearshorts.com/Mike/uploads/2011/06/10.1.1.62.8194.pdf [Aug. 2011].
19 B. Li, J. He, J. Huang, and Y.Q. Shi. (2011, Apr.). “A survey on image steganography and steganalysis.” Journal of Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing. 2(2), [On line], pp. 142-172. Available: http://bit.kuas.edu.tw/~jihmsp/2011/vol2/JIH-MSP-2011-03- 005.pdf [Dec., 2011].
20 W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and A. Lu. (1996). “Techniques for data hiding.” IBM System Journal. 35(3/4), [On line], pp. 313-336. Available: http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/people/dgruhl/313.pdf [Nov., 2011].
21 M. Juneja and P.S. Sandhu. “Designing of robust image steganography technique based on LSB insertion and encryption.” IEEE International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing, 2009, pp. 302-305.
22 N. F. Johnson, S. Katzenbeisser. “A Survey of steganographic techniques.” in Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, S. Katzenbeisser and F. Petitcolas, Ed. London: Artech House, 2000, pp. 43-78.
23 K. Curran and K. Baily. (2006, Jul.). “An evaluation of image based steganography methods.” Multimedia Tools and Applications Journal. [On line]. 30(1), pp. 55-88. Available: http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1164470 [May, 2011].
24 A.R. Naghsh-Nilchi, L. Pourmohammadbagher. (2006, Jun.). “A new approach to steganography using sinc-convolution method.” PWASET Journal. [On line]. 14(1), pp. 324- 329. Available: http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v20/v20-4.pdf [May, 2011].
25 D.L. Currie and C.E. Irvine. “Surmounting the effects of lossy compression on steganography.” in Proc. of the 19th National Information Systems Security Conference, 1996, pp. 194-201.
26 A. Westfeld. “F5-A steganographic algorithm: high capacity despite better steganalysis.” in Proc. of the 4th Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS, 2001, pp. 289-302.
27 A. Westfeld and A. Pfittzmann. “Attacks on steganographic systems- breaking the steganographic utilities Ezstego, Jsteg, Steganos, and S-tools-and some lessons learned.” in Proc. of the 3rd Internet Workshop on Information Hiding, 1999, pp. 61-76.
28 N. Provos. “Defending against statistical steganalysis.” in Proc. of the 10th USENIX Security Symposium, 2001, pp. 323-325.
29 P. Sallee. “Model-based steganography.” in Proc. the 2nd International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, LNCS, 2004. pp. 254-260.
30 K. Solanki and B.S. Manjunath. “Yass: Yet another steganographic scheme that resists blind steganalysis.” in Proc. of the 9th Information Hiding Workshop, LNCS, 2007. pp. 1- 16.
31 H.S. Majunatha Reddy and K.B. Raja. (2009). “High capacity and security steganography using discrete wavelet transform.” International Journal of Computer Science and Security. [On line]. 3(6), pp. 462-472. Available: http://www.cscjournals.org/csc/manuscript/Journals/IJCSS/volume3/Issue6/IJCSS-163.pdf [Jun., 2011].
32 S. Areepongsa, N. Kaewkammerd, Y.F. Syed, and K.R. Rao. “Exploring on steganography for low bit rate Wavelet based coder in image retrieval system.” in Proc. of IEEE TENCON, 2000. pp. 250-255.
33 S. Areepongsa, N. Kaewkammerd, Y.F. Syed, and K.R. Rao. “Steganography for low bitrate Wavelet based image coder.” in Proc. of IEEE ICIP, 2000. pp. 597-600.
34 N.K. Abdulaziz and K.K. Pang. “Robust data hiding for images.” in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communication Technology, 2000. pp. 380-383.
35 L.D. Paulson. (2006, Aug.). “New system fights steganography. News briefs.” IEEE Computer Society. [On line]. 39(8), pp. 25-27. Available: http://journals2.scholarsportal.info/details.xqy?uri=/00189162/v39i0008/25_nsfs.xml [Jul., 2011].
36 A.A. Abdelwahab and L.A. Hasan. “A discrete Wavelet Transform based technique for image data hiding.” in Proc. of 25th National Radio Science Conference, 2008. pp. 1-9.
37 J.R. Smith and B.O. Comiskey. “Modulation and information hiding in images.” in Proc. of the 1st Information Hiding Workshop, 1996. pp. 207-226.
38 H. Wang and S. Wang. (2004, Oct.). “Cyber Warfare: steganography vs. steganalysis.” Communications of the ACM. [On line]. 47(10), pp. 76-82. Available: www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~leszek/COMP526/week4/comp526-3.pdf [Mar., 2011].
39 L.M. Marvel, C.G. Boncelet Jr., C.T. Retter. (1999). “Spread spectrum image steganography.” IEEE Trans. image processing. [On line]. 8(8), pp. 1075-1083. Available: http://www.mendeley.com/research/spread-spectrum-image-steganography-1/ [Apr., 2011].
40 C.L. Tsai, K.C. Fan, and C.D. Chung. “Secure information by using digital data embedding and spread spectrum techniques.” IEEE 35th International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 2001. pp. 156-162.
41 F. Alturki and R. Merserau. “Secure blind image steganographic technique using Discrete Fourier Transform.” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 2001. pp. 16-162.
42 K.C. Widadi, P.H. C.C. Wah. “Blind steganography using direct sequence/frequency hopping spread spectrum technique. in : Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 5th International Conference, 2006. pp. 1125-1129.
43 M. Gkizeli, D.A., and M.J. Medley. (2007, Feb.). “Optimal signature design for spreadspectrum steganography.” IEEE Signal Processing Society. [On line]. 16(2), pp. 391-405. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4060938 [Oct. 2011].
44 R.S. Youail, A.-K.A.-R. Khadhim, and V.W. Samawi. “Improved stegosystem using DFT with combined error correction and spread spectrum.” in 2nd IEEE ICIEA, 2007. pp. 1832- 1836.
45 R.S. Singh, M.A. Khani, and N. Singh. (2010, Dec.). “Spread spectrum image steganography in multimedia messaging service of mobile phones.” International Journal of Electronics Engineering. [On line]. 2(2), pp. 365 – 369. Available: http://www.csjournals.com/IJEE/PDF%202-2/Article_29.pdf [Oct., 2011].
46 S.C. Katzenbeisser. “Principles of Steganography.” in Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, S. Katzenbeisser and F. Petitcolas, Ed. London: Artech House, 2000, pp. 43-78.
47 R. Radhakrishnan, K. Shanmugasundaram, and N. Memon. “Data masking: a secure-covert channel paradigm.” in IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, 2002. pp. 339- 342.
48 Y.O. Yildiz, K. Panetta, and S. Agaian. (2007, Apr.). “New quantization matrices for jpeg steganography.” International Society for Optical Engineering. [On line]. 6579(1), pp. 6579OD. Available: link.aip.org/link/?PSISDG/6579/65790D/1 [Nov., 2011].
49 A. Shaddad, J. Condell, K. Curran, and P. Mckevitt. “Enhancing steganography in digital images.” IEEE Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision, 2008. pp. 326-332.
50 S.S. Agaian, B.M. Rodriguez, and J.P. Perez. “Palette-based steganography used for secure digital image archiving.” IS&T Archiving Conference, 2005. pp. 159- 164.
51 C.H. Tzeng, Z.F. Yang, and W.H. Tsai. (2004, May). “Adaptive data hiding in palette images by color ordering and mapping with security protection.” IEEE Trans. on Communications. [On line]. 52(5), pp. 791-800. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1299069 [Dec., 2011].
52 W. Bender, W. Butera, D. Gruhl, R. Hwang, F.J. Paiz and S. Pogreb. (2000, Jul.). “Applications for data hiding.” IBM Systems Journal. [On line]. 39(3&4), pp. 447- 568. Available: http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/people/dgruhl/afdh.pdf [Dec., 2011].
53 E. Franz and A. Schneidewind. “Adaptive steganography based on dithering.” in Proc. of the 2004 workshop on Multimedia and Security, 2004. pp. 56-62.
54 R. Bohm and A. Westfeld. “Breaking cauchy model-based JPEG steganography with first order statistics.” In Proc. of ESORICS'2004, 2004. pp. 125-140.
55 A.M. Fard, M. Akbarzadeh-R., and F. Varasteh-A. “A new genetic algorithm approach for secure JPEG steganography.” in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Intelligent Systems ICEIS, 2006. pp. 216-219.
56 A. Shaddad, J. Condell, K. Curran, and P. Mckevtt. “Biometric inspired digital image steganography.” In Proc. of the 15th Annual IEEE International Conference and Workshop on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems, 2008. Pp. 159-168.
57 C.C. Chang, P. Tsai, and M.H. Lin. “An adaptive steganography for index- based images using code word grouping.” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2004. pp. 731-738.
58 M. Afrakhteh and S. Ibrahem. “Adaptive steganography scheme using more surrounding pixels.” IEEE International Conference on Computer Design and Applications, 2010. pp. 225-229.
59 Z.Z Kermani and M. Jamzad. “A robust steganography algorithm based on texture similarity using Gabor filter.” in Proc. of IEEE 5th International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology ISSPIT, 2005. pp. 578-582.
60 A.I. Hashad, A.S. Madani and A.E.M.A. W ahdan. “A robust steganography technique using Discrete Cosine Transform insertion.” In Proc. of IEEE/ITI 3rd International Conference on Information and Communications Technology, 2005. pp. 255-264.
61 J. Fridrich. “Applications of data hiding in digital images.” Tutorial for the ISPACS’98 Conference, 1998.
Miss Nagham Hamid
University Malaysia Perlis - Malaysia
nagham_fawa@yahoo.com
Dr. Abid Yahya
- Malaysia
Dr. R. Badlishah Ahmad
- Malaysia
Dr. Osamah M. Al-Qershi
- Malaysia