Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

(287.33KB)
This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.

PUBLICATIONS BY COUNTRIES

Top researchers from over 74 countries worldwide have trusted us because of quality publications.

United States of America
United Kingdom
Canada
Australia
Malaysia
China
Japan
Saudi Arabia
Egypt
India
TGA Analysis of Torrified Biomass from Malaysia for Biofuel Production
Noorfidza Yub Harun, M.T Afzal, Mohd Tazli Azizan
Pages - 639 - 652     |    Revised - 25-01-2010     |    Published - 25-02-2010
Volume - 3   Issue - 6    |    Publication Date - January 2010  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Torrefaction, Biomass, Temperature, Particle Size
ABSTRACT
This project investigated the possibility of converting biomass wastes into solid fuels by undergoing torrefaction process. Rubber seed kernel was used to produce torrefied material and the factors affecting torrefaction were investigated. The biomass waste was dried, ground, sieved, heated and cooled to obtain the torrefied material. It was found that minimum 30% of the moisture content was removed from its original value during torrefaction process. Almost 100% of the calorific value in all the samples can be retained or increased by up to 10% from the original waste calorific value. The proximate analysis was carried out using Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) where rubber seed kernels exhibited high fixed carbon region at the respective temperature. At the optimum condition of temperature 280°C and particle size of 0.025 mm, the torrefied material produced is viable to be promoted at a larger scale.
1 Google Scholar 
2 Academic Journals Database 
3 ScientificCommons 
4 Academic Index 
5 CiteSeerX 
6 refSeek 
7 iSEEK 
8 Socol@r  
9 ResearchGATE 
10 Libsearch 
11 Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) 
12 Scribd 
13 WorldCat 
14 SlideShare 
15 PdfSR 
16 PDFCAST 
17 Chinese Directory Of Open Access 
1 Dewi Soraya. “Torrefied Biomass Waste as Alternative Replacement to Fossil Fuel”. Final Year Project Dissertation, University Technology PETRONAS, Malaysia. 2008
2 A.V. Bridgwater, G.V.C. Peacocke. “Fast pyrolysis processes for biomass”. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 4(1): 1-73, 2000
3 E. Natarajan, A. Nordin, A.N. Rao. “Overview of Combustion and Gasification of Rice Husk in Fluidized Bed Reactors”. Biomass and Bioenergy, 14(5): 533-546, 1998
4 J. Arcate. “New process for torrefied wood manufacturing”. Bioenergy Update. 2(4), 2000
5 J. Bourgeois and J. Doat. “Proceedings Conference on bioenergy”. Göteborg. Vol.3, 1985
6 M. Herlina. “Production of Torrefied Materials from Waste Biomass”. Final Year Project Dissertation, University Technology PETRONAS, Malaysia. 2002
7 M. L. Farah Dila. “Pyrolysis of Biomass for Production of Liquid Fuel”. Final Year Project Dissertation, University Technology PETRONAS, Malaysia. 2008
8 Mark J. Prins, Krzysztof J. Ptasinski, Frans J.J.G. Janssen. “More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction”. Energy, 31: 3458-3470. 2006
9 R. Zanzi, D. Tito Ferro2, A. Torres3, P. Beaton Soler2, E. Björnbom. “Biomass torrefaction”. http://hem.fyristorg.com/zanzi/paper/zanziV2A-17.pdf , Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. 1989
10 Alberto J. Tsamba, Weihong Yang, Wlodzimierz Blasiak. “Pyrolysis characteristics and global kinetics of coconut and cashew nut shells”. Fuel Process Technology, 87(6): 523-530. 2006
11 A.S. Ramadhas, S. Jayaraj, C. Muraleedharan. “Characterization and effect of using rubber seed oil as fuel in the compression ignition engines”. Renewable Energy, 30(5): 795-803, 2005
12 A.S. Ramadhas, S. Jayaraj, C. Muraleedharan. “Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas”. Renewable Energy, 33(9): 2077-2083, 2008
13 B.V. Babu, A.S. Chaurasia. “Modeling, simulation and estimation of optimum parameters in pyrolysis of biomass”. Energy Conversion Management, 44(13): 2135-2158, 2003
14 A.V. Bridgwater, G.V.C. Peacocke. “Fast pyrolysis processes for biomass”. Renewable Sustainability Energy Revision. 4(1): 1-73, 2000
15 Ersan Pu¨tu¨n , Funda Ates, Ays_e Eren Pu¨tu. « Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in inert and steam atmospheres”. Fuel 87(6): 815-824, 2008
16 F. Fonseca Felfli, C. Luengo, G. Bezzon and P. Beaton. “Bench unit for biomass residues torrefaction”. In Proceedings of Conference on Biomass for Energy and Industry. Würzburg, Germany. 1998
17 Joe¨l Blin, Ghislaine Volle, Philippe Girard, Tony Bridgwater, Dietrich Meier, Biodegradability of biomass pyrolysis oils: Comparison to conventional petroleum fuels and alternatives fuels in current use. Fuel. 86(17-18): 2679-2686. 2007
18 Mohamad K.M. Sabil. “Study on the Production of Charcoal by Carbonization Using Mangrove Wood in Malaysia”. In Proceedings of Second Engineering Congression Engineering Innovation and Sustainability: Global Challenges and Issues. Sarawak, Malaysia. 2002
19 Patrick C.A. Bergman, Jacob H.A. Kiel. “Torrefaction for Biomass Upgrading“. In Proceedings of 14th. European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. Paris, France. 2005
20 Malaysian Rubber Review Third Quarterly Industrial Report 2006
21 International Energy Outlook 2007
22 http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/why.htm [retrieved on 11th March 2008]
23 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle [retrieved on 12th March 2008]
24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol [retrieved on 12th March 2008]
25 http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php [retrieved on 12th March 2008]
26 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel [retrieved on 9th March 2008]
27 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_generation_biofuels [retrieved on 9th March 2008]
28 http://www.cpeo.org/techtree/ttdescript/pyrols.htm [retrieved on 9th March 2008]
29 http://www.bioenergywiki.net/index.php/Pyrolysis [retrieved on 11th March 2008]
30 http://www.btgworld.com/technologies/pyrolysis.html [retrieved on 9th March 2008]
Mr. Noorfidza Yub Harun
- Canada
ynoorfidza@yahoo.com
Associate Professor M.T Afzal
University of New Brunswick - Canada
Mr. Mohd Tazli Azizan
Universiti Teknologi Petronas - Malaysia