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Knowledge – Based Reservoir Simulation – A Novel Approach
M. Enamul Hossain, M. Rafiqul Islam
Pages - 622 - 638     |    Revised - 30-01-2009     |    Published - 31-01-2010
Volume - 3   Issue - 6    |    Publication Date - January 2010  Table of Contents
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KEYWORDS
Non-Newtonian fluid, shear rate , complex fluid rheology, non-Darcy flow, non-linear dynamics, chaos in porous media.
ABSTRACT
It is well known that reservoir simulation studies are very subjective and vary from simulator to simulator. While SPE benchmarking has helped accept differences in predicting petroleum reservoir performance, there has been no scientific explanation behind the variability that has frustrated many policy makers and operations managers and puzzled scientists and engineers. In a recent book by the research group of R. Islam, a new approach is taken to add the Knowledge dimension to the problem. For the first time, reservoir simulation equations are shown to have embedded variability and multiple solutions that are in line with physics rather than spurious mathematical solutions. With this clear description, a fresh perspective in reservoir simulation is presented. Unlike the majority of reservoir simulation approaches available today, the 'knowledge-based' approach does not stop at questioning the fundamentals of reservoir simulation but offers solutions and demonstrates that proper reservoir simulation should be transparent and empower decision makers rather than creating a black box. Mathematical developments of new governing equations based on in-depth understanding of the factors that influence fluid flow in porous media under different flow conditions are introduced. Behavior of flow through matrix and fractured systems in the same reservoir, heterogeneity and fluid/rock properties interactions, Darcy and non-Darcy flow are among the issues that are thoroughly addressed. For the first time, the fluid memory factor is introduced with a functional form. The resulting governing equations are solved without linearization at any stage. A series of clearly superior mathematical and numerical techniques are also presented that allow one to achieve this objective. Mathematical solutions that provide a basis for systematic tracking of multiple solutions that are inherent to non-linear governing equations. This was possible because the new technique is capable of solving non-linear equations without linearization. To promote the new models, a presentation of the common criterion and procedure of reservoir simulators currently in use is provided. The models are applied to difficult scenarios, such as in the presence of viscous fingering, fractures, and others. It is demonstrated that the currently available simulators only address very limited range of solutions for a particular reservoir engineering problem. Examples are provided to show how the Knowledge-based approach extends the currently known solutions and provide one with an extremely useful predictive tool for risk assessment.
CITED BY (4)  
1 Salles, J. L. M., De Azevedo, R. C., & De Tomi, G. (2015, January). Elaboration of Reservoir Simulation Software for Academic Purpose. In Materials Science Forum (Vol. 805, pp. 409-414).
2 Hossain, M. E. (2012).Comprehensive modeling of complex petroleum phenomena with an engineering approach. Journal of Porous Media, 15(2).
3 Hossain, M. E., Alabdulkarim, B., Jassim, A., Al-Dhufairy, B., & Al-Ali, A. Aporosity dependent model for a heterogeneous reservoir.
4 M. E. Hossain, “The Real Challenges in Reservoir Simulation”, in 2nd Saudi Meeting on Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production Technologies (OGEP 2010) held at the King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) Campus in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, December 18-20, 2010, pp. 1-5.
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2 Abou-Kassem JH, Farouq Ali, SM. and Islam, MR. A Basic Approach to Reservoir Simulation. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 2006; 455.
3 Zatzman GM and Islam MR. Truth, consequences and intentions: The study of natural and antinatural starting points and their implications. J. Nature Science and Sustainable Technology 2007; 1(3): 169-174.
4 Mustafiz S. Mousavizadegan H. and Islam, MR. The effects of linearization on solutions of reservoir engineering problems. Pet. Sci. Tech. 2008: 26(11-12): 1224-1246.
5 Eisenack K. Matthias KB. Lüdeke MKB. Petschel-Heldl G. Scheffran J. and Kropp JP. Qualitative modelling techniques to assess patterns of global change, in advanced methods for decision making and risk management in sustainability science, Kropp, J. and Scheffran, J. (eds.), Nova Science Publishers 2007; 83-127.
6 Zatzman GM. and Islam MR. Truth, consequences and intentions: The study of natural and antinatural starting points and their implications. J. Nature Science and Sustainable Technology 2007a; 1(2): 169-174.
7 Mustafiz S. and Islam MR. State of the art of reservoir simulation. Pet. Sci. Tech. 2008; 26(11-12): 1303-1329.
8 Zatzman, GM. and Islam MR. Economics of intangibles. Nova Science Publishers: 431; 2007b.
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11 Abou-Kassem JH. Engineering approach vs the mathematical approach in developing reservoir simulators, J. Nature Science and Sustainable Technology. 2007; 1(1): 35-68.
12 Zatzman GM. Khan MM. and Islam MR. The use of newly formulated comprehensive mass and energy balance equation to develop an atmospheric model. paper ID: 588-301, WSEAS Transaction; 2008.
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14 Wilkinson DS. Maire E. and Embury JD. The role of heterogeneity on the flow and fracture of twophase materials. Materials Science and Engineering. A. Structural 997; 233: 145-154.
15 Naami AM. Catania P. and Islam MR. Numerical and experimental modelling of viscous fingering in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium. CIM paper no. 118, CIM conference, Regina, Oct. 1999.
16 Aboudheir A. Kocabas I. and Islam MR. Improvement of numerical methods in petroleum engineering problems. Proceedings IASTED International Conference, Applied Modelling and Simulation, Cairns, Australia, Sept. 1-3. 1999.
17 Bokhari K. and Islam MR. Improvement in the time accuracy of numerical methods in petroleum engineering problems – A new combination. Energy Sources 2005; 27(1-2): 45-60.
18 Bokhari K. Mustafiz S. and Islam MR. Numerical modelling of viscous fingering under combined effects of thermal, solutal and mixed convection in liquid-liquid miscible displacements. Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology. accepted for publication, May, 2006.
19 Khan MI. and Islam MR. The petroleum engineering handbook: sustainable operations. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, USA, 461: 2007.
20 Khan MI. and Islam MR. True Sustainability in technological development and natural resources management. Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA, 381: 2007b.
21 Khan MM. Zatzman GM. and Islam MR. The formulation of a comprehensive mass and energy balance equation, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Nov. 2-6, Boston, MA.: 2008.
22 Chhetri AB. and Islam MR. Inherently sustainable technology developments, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 452; 2008.
23 Lim, M.L., Land, M.F., 2007, “Sex-specific UV and Fluorescence Signals in Jumping Spiders”, Jan. 26:315 (5811), pp. 481.
24 Sorokhtin OG. Chilingar GV. and Khilyuk LF. Global warming and cooling. Elsevier, 313; 2007.
25 Mousavizadegan SH. Mustafiz S. and Rahman M. The adomian decomposition method on solution of non-linear partial differential equations, J. Nature Science and Sustainable Technology 2007; 1(1): 115-131.
26 Mustafiz S. Mousavizadegan H. and Islam MR. Adomian decomposition of Buckley Leverett equation with capillary terms, Pet. Sci. Tech.: in press.
27 Islam MR. Mousavizadeghan and Mustafiz S. Handbook of knowledge-based reservoir simulation. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, to be published in March 2009.
28 Hossain, ME and Islam, MR. An Advanced Analysis Technique for Sustainable Petroleum Operations. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, Germany, 2009.
29 Hossain, M.E., Mousavizadegan, S.H. and Islam, M.R. (2009). The Mystery and Uncertainty Cloud during Reservoir Simulation in Petroleum Industry. Advances in Sustainable Petroleum Engineering Science, in press.
Dr. M. Enamul Hossain
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals - Saudi Arabia
menamul@kfupm.edu.sa
M. Rafiqul Islam
- Canada