Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
Publications from CSC-OpenAccess Library are being accessed from over 74 countries worldwide.
Usability of User Interface Styles for Learning Graphical Software Applications
Andishe Feizi, Chui Yin Wong
Pages - 34 - 53     |    Revised - 05-04-2013     |    Published - 30-04-2013
Volume - 4   Issue - 1    |    Publication Date - April 2013  Table of Contents
Usability, User Interface Styles, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Command Line Interface (CLI), Graphical Software Application.
This paper examines usability of different user interface styles for learning graphical software applications, namely Adobe Flash CS4 and Microsoft Expression blend 4. An empirical study was performed to investigate the usability attributes of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction scores for learning the graphical software applications. There were 32 participants recruited whom consist of interface designers and software developers. A set of 7 tasks was designed to compare the different effects of user interface styles including graphical user interface (GUI) and command line interface (CLI). User Performance variables (effectiveness, efficiency, duration, number of errors and number of helps) were measured for tasks performed by all the participants in the test. Satisfaction score was measured using QUIS (Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction) tool. The result revealed that the average effectiveness scores are higher than 75% for both software applications. Although Adobe Flash CS4 gained slightly higher on effectiveness, Microsoft Expression Blend 4 obtained better results in terms of efficiency, duration, errors and helps. The user satisfaction rates also showed Microsoft Expression Blend 4 gained higher satisfaction comparing Adobe Flash CS4. Generally, both software applications gained scores above average (>3.5) for majority of the user interface satisfaction attributes of software regardless of users’ background.
CITED BY (5)  
1 Shamim, A., Balakrishnan, V., Tahir, M., & Ahsan Qureshi, M. (2016). Age and domain specific usability analysis of opinion visualisation techniques. Behaviour & Information Technology, 1-10.
2 Iio Chun (2015) for beginners to ke pu ro Jewellery Getting ミ nn gu education ni off su ru Awareness Survey -GUI ? CUI ?-do ? ra ga yo ? ka -.?. Intelligence Education ? nn Polyster ji ? Rousseau 2015 Proceedings, 2015, 17-22.
3 Hartanto, C. (2014). Service Design in Application of Renewing and Redefining User Interface of Smart TV. Taipei University of Technology Interactive Media Design Institute dissertations, 1-96.
4 Khan, S. R., & Bhat, M. S. (2014, March). GUI based industrial monitoring and control system. In Power and Energy Systems Conference: Towards Sustainable Energy, 2014 (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
5 Shamim, A., Balakrishnan, V., & Tahir, M. (2014). Evaluation of opinion visualization techniques. Information Visualization, 1473871614550537.
1 Google Scholar 
2 CiteSeerX 
3 refSeek 
4 Scribd 
5 SlideShare 
6 PdfSR 
1 A.H. Jorgensen and B.A. Myers. “User Interface History.” Proceeding CHI '08 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 2415-2418, 2008.
2 P. Zhou and X. Fang. “Analysis of Cognitive Behavior in Software Interactive Interface.”Computer-Aided Industrial Design and Conceptual Design, CAID/CD 9thInternational Conference, pp. 113-116, 2008.
3 C. Frankish, P. Morgan and R. Hull. “Recognition Accuracy and Usability of Pen-Based Interfaces.” IEE Savoy Place. Vol. 126, pp. 7/1- 7/6, 1996.
4 J.A. Jacko and A. Sears. The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals,Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications. New York: Taylor & Francis Group,2002.
5 M. Fetaji, S. Loskovska and B. Fetaji. “Software Engineering Interactive Virtual Learning Environment,” in Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications. C. Montgomerie and J. Seale, Ed. Chesapeake., VA: AACE , 2007,pp. 939-944.
6 B. Shneiderman. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1998.
7 The Linux Information Project. “GUI Definition”. Internet: http://www.linfo.org/gui.html,[September 6, 2010].
8 A.O. Ajayi, E.A. Olajubu, D.F. Ninan, S.A. Akinboro and H.A. Soriyan. “Development and Testing of a Graphical FORTRAN Learning Tool for Novice Programmers.” Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, vol. 5, pp. 277-289, 2010.
9 International Standardization Organisation. “International Standard ISO/IEC 9126-1.”Software Engineering—Product Quality—Part 1: Quality Model, 1st ed. pp. 9–10, 2001.
10 A. Seffah, M. Donyaee, R.B. Kline and H.K. Padda. “Usability Measurement and Metrics:A Consolidated Model.” Software Qual J., vol. 14, pp. 159–178, 2006.
11 C. Benson, M. Muller-Prove and J. Mzourek. “Professional Usability in Open Source Projects: GNOME, OpenOffice.org, NetBeans.” Proceedings of the CHI ‘04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1083-1084, 2004.
12 S. Davis and S. Wiedenbeck. “The Effect of Interaction Style and Training Method on End User Learning of Software Packages.” Interacting with Computer, vol. 11, pp. 147–172, 1998.
13 R. Michalski, J. Grobelny and W. Karwowsk. “The Effects of Graphical Interface Design Characteristics on Human–Computer Interaction Task Efficiency.” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 36. pp. 959–977, 2006.
14 S. Lauesen. User Interface Design: A Software Engineering Perspective. Addison Wesley: Reading MA, 2005.
15 Foviance. “Glossary” Internet: http://www.foviance.com/glossary/u/user-interface design,[December 20, 2010].
16 J.K. Burgoon, J.A. Bonito, B. Bengtsson, C. Cederberg, M. Lundeberg and L. Allspach.“Interactivity in Human–Computer Interaction: a Study of Credibility, Understanding, and Influence.” Elsevier Science Publishers, vol. 16, pp. 553-574, 2000.
17 U. Jamil, T. Mustafa, A.R. Sattar, Shafia and F. Shahzad. “Cognitive Analysis of Software Interfaces.” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 1, pp. 99-108, 2010.
18 X. Pan and Y. Lu. “Study of CAID Software User Interface Design Based on Usability.”Computer-Aided Industrial Design and Conceptual Design, 9th International Conference,2008, pp. 209-213.
19 K. Horvath and M. Lombard. “Social and Spatial Presence: An Application to Optimize Human-Computer Interaction.” Psychology Journal, vol. 8, pp. 87–114, 2010.
20 R. Oppermann. “User-Interface Design.” Internet:http://fit.fraunhofer.de/~oppi/publications/UserInterfaceLearningSystems.pdf, 2002 [September 6, 2010].
21 J. M. Carey. Human Factors in Information Systems: An Organizational Perspective. NJ:Ablex, Norwood, 1991.
22 G.A. Berg. “Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.vol. 9. pp. 347-368, 2000.
23 A. Seffah and E. Metzker. “The Obstacles and Myths of Usability and Software Engineering.” Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, pp. 71–76, 2004.
24 R. G. Bias and D.J. Mayhew. Cost-Justifying Usability: An Update for the Internet Age.San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 2005.
25 IFIP Working Group 2.7/13.4. “On User Interface Engineering: Bridging the SE & HCI Communities” Internet: http://www.se-hci.org/bridging/index.html, [August 12, 2008].
26 E. Folmer, J. Group and J. Bosch. “Architecting for usability: A Survey.” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 70, pp. 61–78, 2004.
27 N. Juristo, A.M. Moreno and M. Sanchez-Segura. “Analysing the Impact of Usability on Software Design.” The Journal of Systems and Software. vol. 80, pp. 1506–1516, 2007.
28 W. Dzida. “International User-Interface Standardization,” in The Computer Science Engineering Handbook. J.A.B. Tucker, Ed. Florida: Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1997, pp. 1474–1493.
29 N. Bevan. “Human-Computer Interaction Standards.” Elsevier Science B., vol. 20, pp.349-354, 1995.
30 M. Macleod. “Usability in Context: Improving Quality of Use.” Internet:http://www.nigelbevan.com/papers/mm- con94.pdf, [May 12, 2011].
31 IEEE Std. 1061. IEEE Standard for a Software Quality Metrics Methodology. New York:IEEE Computer Society Press, 1992.
32 J.D. Gould. “How to design usable systems,” In Handbook of Human Computer Interaction. M. Helander, Ed. New York: Elsevier, 1988, pp. 757-789.
33 J.A. McCall, P.K. Richards and G.F. Walters. Factors in Software Quality. Springfield, VA:National Technical Information Service, 1977.
34 P. Booth. An Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction. USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Hillsdale, 1989.
35 D. Hix and H.R. Hartson. Developing User Interfaces: Ensuring Usability Through Product & Process. New York: John Wiley, 1993.
36 M. Porteous, J. Kirakowsky and M. Corbett. SUMI User Handbook. University College Cork: Human Factors Research Group, 1993.
37 M. Donyaee and A. Seffah. “QUIM: An Integrated Model for Specifying and Measuring Quality in Use,” Eighth IFIP Conference on Human Computer Interaction, Tokyo, Japan,2001.
38 B. Battleson, A. Booth and J. Weintrop, “Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site: A Case Study.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 27, pp. 188-198, 2001.
39 J. Sauro and E. Kindlund. “A Method to Standardize Usability Metrics Into a Single Score.” CHI ’05, pp. 401–409, 2005.
40 B. Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface, Strategies for Effective Human–Computer Interaction. USA: Addison Wesley, 2004.
41 ISO/DIS 9241-11. Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) Part 11: Guidance on Usability. 1998.
42 International Standard ISO/IEC 9126-1. Software Engineering—Product Quality—Part 1:Quality Model. 2001, pp. 9–10.
43 J. Nielsen. Usability Engineering. Boston, London: Academic Press, 1993.
44 N. Bevan and I. Curson. “Methods for Measuring Usability.” Proceedings of the IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 1997, pp. 672-673.
45 B. Shneiderman and C. Plaisant. Designing the User Interface, Strategies for Effective Human–Computer Interaction. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2004.
46 A. Raza, L.F. Capretz and F. Ahmed. “Users’ Perception of Open Source Usability: An Empirical Study.” Engineering with Computers, vol. 28, pp. 109-121, 2001.
47 S. Rosenbaum. “The Future of Usability Evaluation: Increasing Impact on Value.”Maturing Usability, pp. 344-378, 2008.
48 R. Michalski, J. Grobelny and W. Karwowsk. “The Effects of Graphical Interface Design Characteristics on Human–Computer Interaction Task Efficiency.” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 36, pp. 959–977, 2006.
49 International Business Machines. “The library for system solutions End User Interface reference.” Internet: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/gg244107.pdf, [May 13,2011].
50 The Linux Information Project. “GUI Definition.” Internet: http://www.linfo.org/gui.html,2004 [September 6, 2010]
51 O. Robertson, D. McCracken and A. Newell. “The ZOG Approach to Man- Machine Communication.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 51, pp. 279-306,1999.
52 J. Gray. “The Role of Menu Titles as a Navigational Aid in Hierarchical Menus.” SIGCHI Bulletin, vol. 17, pp. 33-40, 1986.
53 M. Soegaard. “Interaction Styles.” Internet: http://www.interaction design.org/encyclopedia/interactionstyles.html, [November 18, 2010].
54 D. Higgins. “Widget.” Internet:http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci213364,00.html, [September 6, 2010].
55 C. Faulkner. The Essence of Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Prentice Hall,1998.
56 S. Passini, F. Strazzari and A. Borghi. “Icon-Function Relationship in Toolbar Icons.”Elsevier, vol. 29, pp. 521-525, 2008.
57 B. Shneiderman. “Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages.”Computer, vol. 16,pp. 57-69, 1983.
58 B. Hasan and M.U. Ahmed. “Effects of Interface Style on User Perceptions and Behavioral Intention to Use Computer Systems.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 23, pp.3025–3037, 2007.
59 S. A. Davis and R.P. Bostrom. “An Experimental Investigation of the Roles of the Computer Interface and Individual Characteristics in Learning of Computer Systems.”International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, vol. 4, pp. 143–172, 1992.
60 F.D. Davis. “User Acceptance of Information Technology: System Characteristics, User Perceptions and Behavioral Impacts.” International Journal of Man–Machine Studies, vol. 38,pp.457–487, 1993.
61 S. Wiedenbeck and S. Davis. “The Influence of Interaction Style and Experience on User Perceptions of Software Packages.” International Journal of Human–Computer Studies, vol.46, pp. 563–588,1997.
62 R. Gururajan and D. Fink. “A Study of Influences of Application Interfaces on End User Training Outcomes.” Internet:http://www.informingscience.org/proceedings/IS2002Proceedings/papers/Guruj098Study.pdf, [May 17, 2011].
63 P.A. Brooks and A.M. Memon. “Automated GUI Testing Guided By Usage Profiles.”ACM, pp. 333-342, 2007.
64 K.L. McGraw. “Performance Support Systems: Integrating AI, Hypermedia and CBT to Enhance User Performance.” Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 5, pp. 3–26,1994.
65 M. Virvou and K. Kabassi. “An Empirical Study Concerning Graphical User Interfaces that Manipulate Files,” Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2000, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, AACE, Charlottesville, VA., 2000, pp.1724–1726.
66 J.P. Chin, V.A. Diehl and K.L. Norman. “Development of an Instrument Measuring User Satisfaction of the Human-Computer Interface,” in CHI '88 Conference Proceedings: Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery. J. J. O’hare, Ed. New York, 1988, pp. 213-218.
67 R.A. Wisher, M.A. Sabol and J.A. Ellis. Staying Sharp: Retention of Military Knowledge and Skills(ARI Special Report 39). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1999.
68 M. Gunderloy. Developer to Designer: GUI Design for the Busy Developer. Alameda, CA:Joel Fugazzotto, 2005.
Miss Andishe Feizi
Interface Design Department, Faculty of Creative Mu ltimedia Multimedia University Cyberjaya, 63100 - Malaysia
Dr. Chui Yin Wong
Interface Design Department, Faculty of Creative Mu ltimedia Multimedia University Cyberjaya, 63100 - Malaysia