Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
Engaging Diverse Generations in the 21st Century Workplace
Haysetta Doresa Shuler, Kimily Faulk, Barbara Hidleburg-Johnson, Demetrice Williams
Pages - 31 - 39     |    Revised - 30-06-2016     |    Published - 31-07-2016
Volume - 7   Issue - 3    |    Publication Date - August 2016  Table of Contents
Generational Diversity, Engagement, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, Millennials.
At present, organizational leaders are facing the dilemma of maintaining a productive workforce comprised of generational differences that hinder social cohesion and productivity in the workplace. Most of the conflict centers around a difference in work expectations. This review will discuss characteristics, employment patterns and provide a brief background into past and present events that impact various behaviors of Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials and pertain to engagement in the workplace. Specific characteristics differentiate the behaviors of each generation. Understanding these aspects are pertinent to effective business practices in the engaging of diverse generations in the workplace. Although this may be true, not all individuals will share every characteristic of their age group; however, understanding these individualities may make it easier for business leaders to recognize them and know how they manifest themselves in the employee and organization.
CITED BY (0)  
1 CiteSeerX
2 Scribd
3 SlideShare
4 PdfSR
1 M. Baran, M. Klos. (2014, Mar.). “Competency models and the generational diversity of a company workforce.” Economics & Sociology. [Online]. Vol. 7, No 2, pp. 209-217 [May 16, 2016].
2 P. F. Drucker. (1976). “Skuteczne zarz dzanie, Warszawa: Wyd.” Naukowe PWN. [Online]. p. 76. [Feb. 1, 2016].
3 A. Tolbize. (2008, Aug.). “Generational differences in the workplace.” [Online]. Available: http://rtc.umn.edu/docs/2_18_Gen_diff_workplace.pdf [May 16, 2016].
4 J. Notter. (2007, Mar.). “Generational diversity in the workplace.” [Online]. Available: http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com/recruit/group/mature/generational-diversity-in-workplace.asp [May 16, 2016].
5 J.A. Grumana, and A. M. Saksb. (2011, June). “Performance management and employee engagement.” Human Resource Management Review. [Online]. 21(2), 123-136. [Dec. 12, 2015].
6 J. Merry. (2014, Jan.). “Aon Hewitt's 2013 trends in global engagement: Where do organizations need to focus attention?” Strategic HR Review. [Online]. 13(1), 24-31. Available: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/toc/shr/13/1 [Jan. 25, 2016].
7 Swarnalatha, and T. S. Prasana. (2013, Dec.). “Employee engagement: The concept.” International Journal of Management Research and Reviews. [Online]. 3(12), 3872-3880. Available: http://ijmrr.com [Mar. 4, 2016].
8 B. Little, and P. Little. (2006, Jan.). “Employee engagement: Conceptual issues.” Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict. [Online]. 10(1), 111-120. Available: http://www.alliedacademies.org/journal-of-organizational-culture-communications-and-conflict [Feb. 1, 2016].
9 R. Newman. (2010, Nov.). “What are baby Boomers bummed out?” US News& World Report, Money. [Online]. Available: http://money.usnews.com/money/blogs/flowchart/2010/12/29/why-baby-boomers-are-bummed-out [Mar. 4, 2016].
10 K. Seiphart, and T. Baghurst. (2014, Sept.). “Contrasting work values of baby boomers and generation x rural public school principals.” Public Administration Quarterly. [Online]. 38(3), 347-370. Available: http://www.spaef.com/paq.php [Apr. 20, 2016].
11 M. R. Carter, and R. K. Kelly. (2013, Sept.). ”Self-reported health status, body mass index, and healthy lifestyle behaviors: Differences between baby boomer and generation X employees at a southeastern university.” Workplace Health & Safety. [Online]. 61(9), 409-418. [Mar. 4, 2016].
12 M. B. Beauchamp, and D. C. Barnes. (2015, July). “Delighting baby boomers and millennials: factors that matter most.” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice. [Online]. 3(3), 338-350. [Jan. 25, 2016].
13 K. Pritchard, and R. Whiting. (2014, Nov.). “Baby boomers and the lost generation: on the discursive construction of generations at work.” Organization Studies. [Online]. 35(11), 1605-1626. [May 16, 2016].
14 J. I. Tacchino. (2013, July). “Will baby boomers phase into retirement?” Journal of Financial Service Professionals. [Online]. 67(3), 41-48. Available: https://www.financialpro.org/pubs/journal_index.cfm. [Mar. 4, 2016].
15 L. Duxbury, and M. Halinski. (2014, July). “Dealing with the grumpy boomers: Re-engaging the disengaged and retaining talent.” Journal of Organizational Change Management. [Online]. 27(4), 660-676. [Mar. 4, 2016].
16 M. Freedman. (2007, Dec.). “The social-purpose encore career: Baby boomers, civic engagement, and the next stage of work.” Generations. [Online]. 30(4), 43-46. Available: http://www.asaging.org/generations-journal-american-society-aging [Apr. 20, 2016]
17 T. Williamson. (2013, Nov.). “Baby boomers - growing older but getting on with life?” Working with Older People. [Online]. 17(4), 157-163. [Dec. 12, 2015].
18 C. P. Gibaldi. (2014, Dec.). “The changing trends of retirement: Baby boomers leading the charge.” Review of Business. [Online]. 4(1), 50-57. Available: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-business-research [Mar. 4, 2016].
19 W. A. Jackson. (2009, Oct.). “Retirement policies and the life cycle: Current trends and future prospects.” Review of Political Economy. [Online]. 21(4), 515-536. [Feb. 1, 2016].
20 W. S. Jacobson. (2010, Dec.). “Preparing for tomorrow: A case study of workforce planning in North Carolina municipal governments.” Public Personnel Management. [Online]. 39(4), 353-377. [Jan. 25, 2016].
21 R. Drago, M. Wooden, and D. Black. (2009, Apr.). “Who wants and gets flexibility? Changing work hour preferences and life events.” Industrial & Labor Relations Review. [Online]. 62(3), 394-414. Retrieved from http://ilr.sagepub.com [Mar. 4, 2016].
22 D. Hevenstone. (2011, Oct.). “Flexicurity, Happiness, and Satisfaction.” International Journal of Sociology, 41(3), 7-45. [May 16, 2015].
23 S. D. Gelardin, and E. J. Muscat. (2010, Apr.). “The integral aging process (IAP): A holistic, sustainable approach to personal development for boomers and beyond.” Interbeing. [Online]. 4(1), 29-37. Available: http://www.interbeing.biz [Jan. 25, 2016].
24 L. Cennamo, and D. Gardner. (2008, Mar.). “Generational differences in work values, outcomes and person-organisation values fit.” Journal of Managerial Psychology. [Online]. 23(8), 891-906. [Aug. 19, 2015].
25 X. Ma. (2008, Dec.). “Occupational Career Types of Baby-Boomers and Their Effects on Employment Pattern Selection.” Japanese Economy. [Online]. 35(4), 64-106. [Dec. 12, 2015].
26 E. Stark. (2009, July). “Fractures, fissures, and fault lines: Challenges accompanying baby boomers retaining employment in a recovering U.S. economy.” Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. [Online]. 14(3), 3-26. Available: http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com/productdetail.kmod?productid=4147 [Jan. 25, 2016].
27 T. Weidmer. (2015, Oct.). “Generations do differ: Best practices in leading traditionalists, boomers, and generations X, Y, and Z.” Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin. [Online]. 82(1), 51-58. Available: https://www.questia.com/library/p438442/delta-kappa-gamma-bulletin [Apr. 20, 2016].
28 D. Andert. (2011, Oct.). “Alternating leadership as a proactive organizational intervention: Addressing the needs of the baby boomers, generation Xers and millennials.” Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics. [Online]. 8(4), 67-83. Available: http://www.na-businesspress.com/jlaeopen.html [Dec. 12, 2015].
29 G. Dixon, A. Mercado, and B. Knowles. (2013, Dec.). “Followers and generations in the workplace. Engineering Management Journal. [Online]. 25(4), 62-72. [Sept. 3, 2015].
30 J. Feyer. (2011, Jan.). “The US productivity slowdown, the baby boom, and management quality.” Journal of Population Economics. [Online]. 24(1), 267-284. [Apr. 20, 2016].
31 L. Marchiori. (2011, Sept.). “Demographic trends and international capital flows in an integrated world.” Economic Modelling. [Online]. 28(5), 2100-2120. [Feb. 1, 2016].
32 M. J. Bailey, and W. J. Collins. (2011, Apr.). “Did improvements in household technology cause the baby boom? Evidence from electrification, appliance diffusion, and the Amish.” American Economic Journal Macroeconomics. [Online]. 3(2), 189-217. [Sept. 3, 2015]
33 B. Contini. (2012, May). “Youth employment in Europe: Do institutions and social capital explain better than mainstream economics?” The European Journal of Comparative Economics. [Online]. 9(2), 247-277. Available: http://eaces.liuc.it [Dec. 12, 2015].
34 L. Marchiori. (2011). “Demographic trends and international capital flows in an integrated world. Economic Modelling. [Online]. 28(5), 2100-2120. [Jan. 25, 2016].
35 P. M. Poindexter, and D. L. Lasorsa. (1999). “Generation X: Is its meaning understood?” Newspaper Research Journal. [Online]. 20(4), 28-36. Available: http://www.newspaperresearchjournal.org/staticpages/index.php?page=submission_info [Mar. 4, 2016].
36 J. S. Sincavage. (2004, June). “The labor force and unemployment: Three generations of change.” Monthly Labor Review. [Online]. 127(6), 34-41. Available: httpa://www.jstor.org/journal/monthylaborrev [Feb. 1, 2016].
37 S. B. Berkup. (2014, Aug.). “Working with generation X and Y in Generation Z period: Management of different generations in business life.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. [Online]. 5(19). [Dec. 12, 2015].
38 M. M. Mitchell, P. McClean, and G. B. Turner. (2005, Dec.). “Understanding generation X… Boom or Bust Introduction. Business Forum. [Online]. 27(1), 26-30. Available: http://journalseek.net/cgi-bin/journalseek/journalsearch.cgi?field=issn&query=0733-2408 [Apr. 20, 2016].
39 A. M. Mitchell, and R. Orwig. (1998, Jan./Feb.). “Generation X: How to manage, market, and motivate them.” Nonprofit World. [Online]. 16(1), 36-41. [Mar. 4, 2016].
40 N. J. Betrell, and U. Wittig-Berman. (2008, June). “Work-family and work-family synergy for generation X, baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes.” Journal of Managerial Psychology. [Online]. 23 (5), 507-523. [Dec. 12, 2015].
41 K. W. Smola, and C. D. Sutton. (2002, June). “Generational differences” revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior. [Online]. 23(4), 363-382. Available: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291099-1379 [Sept. 3, 2015].
42 C. L. Jurkiewicz. (2000). “Generation X and the public employee.” Public Personnel Management. [Online]. 29(1), 55-74. Available: http://ppm.sagepub.com [Jan. 25, 2016].
43 S. J. Adams. (2000). “Generation X: How understanding this population leads to better safety programs.” Professional Safety. [Online]. 4(1), 26-29. Available: http://www.asse.org/professional-safety [Feb. 1, 2016].
44 S. D. Coolidge. (1999). “Generations Apart. Christian Science Monitor. [Online]. 91(177), 11. Available: http://www.csmonitor.com [May 16, 2016].
45 J. M. Rosow. (1974). “The worker and the job: Coping with change.” Prentice Hall, Englewood, NJ. [Dec. 12, 2015].
46 J. L. Perrine. (2009, Apr.). “Recruitment and retention report: Strategies to boost RN retention.” Nursing Management. [Online]. 40(4),20-22. [Dec. 12, 2015].
47 K. Carbary, E. Fredricks, M. Bharat, and J. Misha. (2016, May). “Generation gaps: Changes in the workplace due to differing generational values.” Advances in Management. [Online]. 9(5), 1-1, 8. Available: http://managementjournal.info [Feb. 1, 2016].
48 J. Ferri-Reed. (2014). “Building innovative multi-generational teams.” The Journal for Quality and Participation. [Online]. 37(3), 20-22. Available: http://asq.org/pub/jqp [Jan. 25, 2016].
49 N. S. Ahlrichs. (2007, Apr.). “Managing the generations differently to improve performance and profitability.” Employment Relations Today. [Online]. 34(1), 21-31. [Jan. 25, 2016].
50 J. W. Westerman, and J. H. Yamamura. (2007). “Generational preferences for work environment: Effects on employee outcomes.” Career Development International. [Online]. 12(2), 150. [Feb. 1, 2016].
51 R. Middlekauf. (1971, June). “The Mathers, three generation of puritan intellectuals 1596-1728.” [Online]. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. [Feb. 1, 2016].
52 C. C. Pinder. (1998, July). “Work motivation in organizational behavior.” [Online]. Prentice Hall, Upper saddle River, NJ. [Jan. 25, 2016].
53 A. L. Harold, and M. B. Lawson. (1993, Jan.). “Changes in affective and continuance commitment in times of relocation.” Journal of Business Research. [Online]. 26(1), 3-15. [Mar. 4, 2016].
54 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited. (2016, Feb.). “The 2016 Deloitte millennial survey: Winning over the next generation of leaders.” Available: http://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/About-Deloitte/gx-millenial-survey-2016-exec-summary.pdf [Aug. 19, 2015].
55 A. Lavoie. (2014, June). “Fast Company.” Available: http://www.fastcompany.com/3033488/hit-the-ground-running/4-employee-engagement-secrets-from-millennials [Jan 25, 2016]
56 J. Gilbert. (2011, Sept./Oct.). “The millennials: A new generation of employees, a new set of engagement policies.” Ivey Business Journal. [Online]. Available: http://iveybusinessjournal.com/publication/the-millennials-a-new-generation-of-employees-a-new-set-of-engagement-policies [Mar. 4, 2016].
57 J. M. Twenge, and S. M. Campbell. (2008, Nov.). “Generational differences in psychological traits and their impact on the workplace.” Journal of Managerial Psychology. [Online]. 23(8), 862-877. [De. 12, 2015].
58 C. Hoole, and J. Bonnema. (2015, Jan.). “Work engagement and meaningful work across generational cohorts.” SA Journal of Human Resource Management. [Online]. 13(1), 1-11. Available: http://www.sajhrm.co.za/index.php/sajhrm [Feb. 1, 2016].
59 A. M. Saks, and J. A Gruman. (2014, June). “What do we really know about employee engagement?” Human Resource Development Quarterly. [Online]. 25(2), 155-182 [Apr. 20, 2016].
60 N. Hackbarth. (2014, Oct.). “5 Engagement survey questions millennial employees crave.” Available: http://www.quantumworkplace.com/future-of-work/5-engagement-survey-questions-millennial-employees-crave/ [Aug. 19, 2015].
61 J. Sylvester. (2015, Aug.). “Creating and maintaining an engaged Generation Y workforce-why it matters and what to do.” Strategic HR Review. [Online]. 14(4). Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/loi/shr [Jan 25, 2016].
62 M. Dittmann. (2005, June). “Generational differences at work.” American Psychological Association. [Online]. 36(6), 54. Available: http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun05/generational.aspx [Dec. 12, 2015].
Mr. Haysetta Doresa Shuler
Winston Salem State - United States of America
Miss Kimily Faulk
University of Phoenix - United States of America
Miss Barbara Hidleburg-Johnson
University of Phoenix - United States of America
Mr. Demetrice Williams
University of Phoenix - United States of America