Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
A Novel Approach for Image Steganography in Spatial Domain Using Last Two Bits of Pixel Value
Gaurav Chawla, Rajkumar Yadav, Ravi Saini
Pages - 51 - 61     |    Revised - 01-07-2011     |    Published - 05-08-2011
Volume - 5   Issue - 2    |    Publication Date - July / August 2011  Table of Contents
LSB method, Cryptography, Steganography
In this present study a new method for insertion of message in an image is proposed. We have used last two bits of pixel for insertion and retrieval of message. This method is an improvement over earlier methods like Least Significant Bit (LSB) method [2], 6th and 7th bit method [5] and 6th, 7th and 8th bit method [6]. Our method provides us optimal solution in case of chances of message insertion at a pixel location such that the change at a pixel value does not exceed range from +1 to -1 which is negligible to human eye.
CITED BY (1)  
1 Sumathi, C. P., Santanam, T., & Umamaheswari, G. (2014). A Study of Various Steganographic Techniques Used for Information Hiding. arXiv preprint arXiv:1401.5561.
1 Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
2 Google Scholar
3 CiteSeerX
4 refSeek
5 Scribd
6 slideshare
7 PdfSR
1 A. Gutub, M. Fattani, “A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method using letter Points and Extension”, WASET International Conference on Computer Information and Sys-tem Science and Engineering (ICCISSE), Vienna, Austria, May 25-27, 2007.
2 N. Johnson and S. Jajodia, “Exploring steganography: seeing the unseen,” IEEE Com-puter, pp. 26-34, February 1998.
3 D. Kahn, The Codebreakers, Macmillian, New York, 1967.
4 B. Norman, Secret Warfare, Acropolis Books, Washington D.C., 1973.
5 Parvinder Singh, Sudhir Batra and HR Sharma, “Evaluating the Performance of Mes-sage Hidden in First and Second Bit Plane,” WSEAS Transaction on Information Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No 89, pp 1220-1222, Aug 2005
6 Sudhir Batra, Rahul Rishi and Raj Kumar, “Insertion of Message in 6th, 7th and 8th bit of pixel values and its retrievals in case intruder changes the least significant bits of im-age pixels”, International Journal of Security and its application, Vol. 4, No. 3, July 2010
7 Simmons G. J, “The Prisoners Problem and the Subliminal Channel”, Proceedings of crypto ’83, Plenum Press, pp 51-67, 1983.
8 Anderson R. J, “Stretching the Limit of Steganography”, In Information Hiding, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1174, pp 39-48, 1996.
9 Anderson R. J, Peticolas FAP, “On the Limits of Steganography”, IEEE Journal on Se-lected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16 No 4, pp 474-481, May 1998.
10 N.F. Johnson and Zoran Duric, S. G. J. Information Hiding : Steganography and Wa-termarking - Attacks and Countermeasures (Advances in Information Security, Volume 1). Kluwer Academic Publishers, February 15, 2001.
11 Eugene, T.L., Delp Edward J., “A Review of Data Hiding in Digital Images”.
12 Amirtharajan Rengarajan, Ganesan Vivek, Jithamanyu R, Rayappan John Bosco Bala-guru, “An Invisible Communication for Secret Sharing against Transmission Error”, Universal Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology, 1 (2), 117-121, Nov-2010.
13 13. E Franz, A Jerichav, S Moller, A Pfitznaun, I Steierand, “Computer Based Stegno-graphy”, Information Hiding, Springer Lecturer Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1174, pp. 7-21, 1996.
14 Yeuan-Luen Lee, Ling-Hwei Chen, “A Secure Robust Image Stegnography Nodel,”10th National Conference on Information Security, Hualien, Taiwan, pp 275-284, May 2000
15 Stallings.W. Cryptography and network security: Principles and practice. In Prentice Hall, 2003.
16 Chandramouli, R., Memon, N.D., ‘Steganography capacity: A steganalysis perspective’, Proc. SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, Special Session on Steganalysis, 2003
17 S.Craver ,N. Memon , “Resolving Rightful Ownership with Invisible Watermarking Techniques: Limitations, Attacks and Implications”, IEEE Trans.,Vol 16,No. 4,pp. 573-586,1998.
18 W. Bender,D. Gruhl, N.Morimoto, and A. Lu, “Techniques for data hiding,” IBM Sys-tems Journal, vol. 35, no. 3-4, pp. 313–335, 1996.
19 N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, “Robust image watermarking in the spatial domain,” Signal Processing, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 385–403, 1998.
20 Jing Dong and Tieniu Tan, “Security Enhancement of Biometrics, Cryptography and Data Hiding by Their Combinations”, National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Insti-tute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2728, 10190, Beijing, China.
21 Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan , Rui Du, “Detecting LSB Steganography in Color and Gray-Scale Images”, IEEE Multimedia, issue 4, vol 8, 2001
22 Johnson, Neil F., Zoran Duric, S. G. J., Information Hiding: Steganography and Water-marking – Attacks and Countermeasures (Advances in Information Security, Volume I). Kluwer Academic Publishers, February 15, 2001.
23 RJ Anderson, FAP Petitcolas, “On the Limits of Stegnography”, IEE Journal on se-lected Areas in Communications, Vol. 16 No 4, pp 474-481, May 1998.
24 Ko-Chin Chang., Chien-Ping Chang., Ping S. Huang., and Te-Ming Tu,: A Novel Image Steganographic Method Using Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing, Journal of Multimedia , VOL. 3, NO. 2, JUNE 2008.
25 Parvez M. T. and Gutub A., “RGB Intensity Based Variable-Bits Image Steganography”, APSCC 2008-Proceedings of 3rd IEEE Asia-Pacific Services Computing Conference, Yilan, Taiwan, 9-12 December 2008.
26 Pal, S.K., Saxena, P.K., Muttoo, S.K., ‘Image steganography for wire less networks using the handmaid transform’, International Conference on Signal Processing & Communications (SPCOM), 2004
Mr. Gaurav Chawla
UIET, MD.University, Rohtak - India
Dr. Rajkumar Yadav
UIET, MD.University, Rohtak - India
Mr. Ravi Saini
UIET, MD.University, Rohtak - India