Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Full Text Available

(297.47KB)
This is an Open Access publication published under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
Publications from CSC-OpenAccess Library are being accessed from over 74 countries worldwide.
Differences in Frequencies between Linking Verbs and Relative Pronouns in Written Language
Thanaa Abdulrazzaq Alhabuobi
Pages - 34 - 48     |    Revised - 31-08-2020     |    Published - 01-10-2020
Volume - 11   Issue - 2    |    Publication Date - October 2020  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Linguistics, Computer, Concordances, Linking Verbs, Pronouns.
ABSTRACT
This study was conducted primarily to investigate two areas of linguistic analysis. The study aimed to analyze two types of associations: lexical-grammatical associations and grammatical-grammatical associations. The method used in this study was descriptive and analytic. With regard to lexical-grammatical associations, four linking verbs were selected to explore differences among them with respect to their occurrences in the selected texts. Concerning grammatical-grammatical associations, two relative pronouns were selected to identify differences among them with respect to their occurrences in the selected texts. The pronouns were specifically selected in terms of their use as a subject in essential (restrictive) adjective clauses. For purposes of the current research, seventeen articles were selected from Internet databases. The topics of all articles involved health-life problems. The Simple Concordancer Program was applied to find collocations and frequencies of the target words. The study was delimited to four linking verbs: be, seem, look, and feel. It was also delimited to two relative pronouns used as a subject in restrictive adjective clauses. The findings of the study revealed no significant differences between occurrences of the linking verbs. However, the verb (be) occurred relatively more frequently than (seem, look, and feel). On the other hand, the verb (look) was the least frequent verb among all verbs. The findings also showed significant differences between occurrences of the subject relative pronouns. More specifically, the pronoun (who) occurred more frequently than the pronoun (that).
1 Azar, B. Understanding and Using English Grammar. New York: Longman, (2002).
2 Biber, D., Conrad, S. & Reppen, R. Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use. Cambridge: CUP, (1998).
3 Chang, J & Chang, Y. (2010, January 21) Computer Assisted Language Learning Based on Corpora and Natural Language Processing: The Experience of Project CANDLE. IWLeL 2004: An Interactive Workshop on Language e-Learning 15-23.
4 Available: http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/1391/1/02.pdf. [2004].
5 Chen, Y. (2004). The Use of Corpora in the Vocabulary Classroom. The Internet TESL Journal: Vol. X, No.9. Available: http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chen-Corpora.html [January 20, 2010].
6 Freeborn, D. A Course Book in English Grammar. London: The Macmillan Press, (1987).
7 Greenbaum, S. The international Corpus of English. Oxford: Clarendon Press, (1996).
8 Gries, S. (2009). What is Corpus Linguistics. Language and Linguistics Compass: Vol.3, pp. 1-17. Available:http://www.linguistics.ucsb.edu/faculty/stgries/research/CorpLing_Compass.pdf [January 20, 2010]
9 Leech, G. A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, (2006).
10 Mcenery, T. & Wilson, A. Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, (1996).
11 McEnery, T., Xiao, R., & Tono, Y. Corpus-Based Language Studies. New York: Routledge, (2006).
12 Meyer, CH. English Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction. England: Cambridge University Press, (2002).
13 Moon, R. Fixed Expressions and Idioms in English: A Corpus-Based Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press, (1998).
14 Renouf, A. & Kehoe, A. The Changing Face of Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam: Rodopi, (2006).
15 Samson, G. English for the Computer. Oxford: Clarendon Press, (1995).
16 Schonefeld, D. Where Lexicon and Syntax Meet. New York. Mouton de Gruyter, (2001).
17 Todd, L. An Introduction to Linguistics. England: Longman York Press, (1987).
18 Traugott, E. & Pratt, M. Linguistics for Students of Literature. Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., (1980).
19 Wisniewski, K. (2007). Corpus Linguistics. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. Available: From the World Wide Web: http://www.tlumaczenia-angielski.info/linguistics/corpus-linguistics.htm [January 20, 2010].
20 Wouden, T. Negative Contexts: Collocation, Polarity and Multiple Negation. London: Routledge, (1997).
Dr. Thanaa Abdulrazzaq Alhabuobi
Arts & Humanities/ Language & Translation, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawarrah/ 344 - Saudi Arabia
thamar_5@hotmail.com