These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes. The articles will be published in near future as soon as they are assigned to the respective issues.
Detecting Public Sentiment and Hesitancy Towards Covid-19 Vaccines by Mining Twitter Data
Tina Tian, Emelia Hajdarovic
This paper presents a process and experimentation where data is collected, processed, and analyzed from the Twitter platform service to detect public sentiment of the COVID-19 vaccines. A collection of more than four million tweets is collected over a period of four months. Using machine learning algorithms, the collection of tweets is grouped into sentiments toward the COVID-19 vaccines. Multiple prediction models are used in this study and analyzed. The model presented to be the most operational with the collection of tweets generates a precision of 80%. This work represents a use case where machine learning methods are performed on data to gather opinions on a current vaccine. Also, this study includes experimentations that involve data analysis of sociological features’ impact on public opinions.
KEYWORDS - Twitter, Social Media Big Data, Machine Learning
Fuzzy Expert System: an Intelligence Framework for Diagnosing Malaria
Muzammil Adamu, Muhammad Lawal Jibril
Malaria is a deadly disease killing millions of people every year. Different countries of the world, governmental and non-governmental organizations including World Health Organization have taken it as a challenge to address the issue of deaths associated with malaria. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is a major key in medical field. This prompts for the need to develop a diagnosis and therapy system that will help in diagnosing of malaria. The fuzzy logic was used, and low, average, high, very high are the linguistic variable used. The system interacts with user using plain English based on some arranged rules which are a typical collection of if/then rules. The system was developed using VB.Net and MySQL database. It is believed that this design can help to reduce the congestion we often see in our hospitals by providing solution for sick patients, irrespective of their locations. It would be of great necessity to provide a computerized system that will provide a complementary medical service, such as medical disease diagnosis in places where accessibility is a problem as well as health care facilities where qualified experts are lacking, hence this topic, Fuzzy Expert System an Intelligent Framework for Diagnosing Malaria.
KEYWORDS - Diagnose, Expert, Framework
Action Research: The Bridge Connecting Research, Practice and Theory
Alexan Hagopian
Action Research as a scientific approach capitalizes on collaboration between researcher and participants to collect information, solve problems, and deliver new results. It is one of the many management research methodologies at the disposal of researchers today though it remains a highly debated one. Literature debates its characteristics using either a thematic approach or case studies without a comprehensive review of themes to answer the question How does Action Research bridge the gap between research, practice, and theory?. The current work carries out a content-based literature review of published articles on Action Research to highlight its ability as a methodology to outperform others in bridging this gap. It addresses the origin, definition, process, and stance of Action Research and aims to compile supporting evidence on its distinct bridging feature. It concludes that indeed Action Research possesses this distinct feature in more than one way. First, through a clear integration between various social science disciplines uncommon among managers due to higher levels of specialization involved in jobs. Second, through matching the problems faced by managers and the problem addressed by social scientists. Third, through the creation of social integration between social scientists and practitioners by bringing together the former with their academic interests and inclination to make contributions to knowledge and the latter with theircareer interests. Finally, Action Research remains a unique methodology that guides practitioners to understand the workplace and achieve an improvement of a problem situation, while incentivizing them to work better on perceived problems, be more effective and supportive while working collaboratively, and develop their skills.
KEYWORDS - Action Research, Theory and Practice Gap, Theory and Practice Bridge, Action Research Origin, Action Research Development, Action Research Stance, Action Research Process.
Identification of Potential Inhibitors against Attachment Glycoprotein G of Nipah Virus using Comprehensive Drug Repurposing Approach
Sangita Ghimire, Sazzad Shahrear, Siddhesh Kishor Saigaonkar, Laura K.Harris
The emerging zoonotic Nipah virus (NiV) is a major threat to public health because of its potential to cause severe outbreaks from human-to-human transmission and lack of therapeutic options currently. Identification of effective therapeutics to combat NiV infections is needed to contain future outbreaks. This research uses in silico methods to predict putative therapeutic candidates for the NiV attachment glycoprotein G (NiV-G) from existing therapeutic agents. To do this, virtual screening of NiV-G against 1615 FDA approved drugs publicly available from the Zinc 15 database is performed using a molecular docking approach via AutoDock Vina software. Further, a molecular dynamics simulation using WebGRO server is employed to identify top NiV-G inhibitors. Most of the binding for the top three ligands as determined by binding energyoccurs in the catalytic groove that must contain Phe458, Trp504, Gln559, and Glu579 in order to successfully inhibit NiV-G. The molecular dynamics simulation analysis validates rigidity and stability of the docked complex through the assessment of root mean square deviations, root mean square fluctuations, solvent accessible surface area, radius of gyration, and hydrogen bond analysis from simulation trajectories. Post-molecular dynamics analysis also shows that Alvimopan, Betrixaban, and Ribociclib interact with NiV-G in the same binding pocket. Therefore, Alvimopan, Betrixaban, and Ribociclib are identified as top NiV-G inhibitors that could be used to improve NiV-infected patient outcomes when an outbreak arises.
KEYWORDS - Nipah Virus Drug Development, Attachment Glycoprotein G, Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Drug Repurposing.
Tongesai Mpofu, Shephard Makurumidze
The purpose of the paper is to find how SMEs in Zimbabwe managed to implement change with respect to COVID-19. The pandemic has changed the way of doing things in the entire world. To survive in situations, organisations need to change. All the SMEs in Zimbabwe may be trying their level best to implement change successfully however, all of them are facing severe issues. The purpose of this study is to identify the major hurdles in implementing change and identifying a way out to cope with the situation based on available literature on SMEs and change management. The other purpose is to find the challenges faced by these SMEs in managing and implementing change.

This study follows a synthesized literature review methodology and is a kind of review paper. In this research, literature that has been written on crisis management and especially over the COVID-19 has been reviewed. In this review analysis, previous studies regarding change management and the importance of SMEs in economic sustainability have been discussed. The paper is a review of existing literature and will identify how the organizations can survive through implementing change successfully.

This study found out that SMEs in Zimbabwe have being struggling to manage and implement change due to non-availability of financial resources. This study is limited to SMEs in Harare province only it does not cover all SMEs in Zimbabwe. The study is significant for SMEs in the entire world. The study is useful for understanding the issues that are related to managing and implementing change in small and medium enterprises especially while facing contingencies. The findings of the study and the literature review led to the conclusion that without implementing change successfully, it is impossible to survive during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to deal with the crisis of resistance to change organisations should motivate and train its employees. The study recommends SMEs in Zimbabwe to manage change by training and motivating employees and the government to support the SMEs sector in order for it to survive since its a backbone of the Zimbabwean economy.
KEYWORDS - Change Management, Implementing Change, Small and Medium Enterprises, COVID-19, Performanc
COVID-19 and Its impact on the Tourism Sector and Hotel Business in Georgia
Marina Metreveli, Tinatin Dolidze
The objective of the paper is to study the negative impact of COVID-19 on the Georgian Tourism sector and Hotel business. In particular, the chronology of the booking trends and the level of digitization of hotels in the pandemic and post-pandemic period; also, what impact does the coronavirus in general have on Georgia's tourism business and hotel adaptation process during crisis challenges. The research aims are to study the spread of digitalization and rapid development in the field of hospitality, in particular in the hotel business. Also, to identify tools, that have worked positively in a pandemic, at a time, when direct contact is severely restricted by regulations.

Based on the results of the research, chronological changes in hotel occupancy during the pandemic and post-pandemic periods should be identified, as well as the impact of digitization on changes in the number of employees. Accordingly, to explore innovative ways of hotel adaptation, creative and simple ways of restoring industry, world experience, and new approaches of Georgia in the post-pandemic period. We are talking about innovations that many hotels wanted to use for years, but needed a new "trigger" in the form of covid. We would like to share with you the results of our research on the Georgian experience of such an adaptation, which we connected from European analogs. We have also developed recommendations for measures to be taken to restore the hotels.
KEYWORDS - Tourism, Hotel Business, Covid-19, Digitalization, Innovations.
Franciscan Spirituality as a source of Self-Leadership in the modern management world
Markus Warode
What can we learn from the Franciscan Tradition for the management and leadership world today? In this paper the focus lies on the 800-year history of the Franciscan family as a learning organization in order to explore the question of transformation as a key concept of Franciscan life resp. Franciscan leadership. To do so we look at the founder of the Order, Francis of Assisi (11811226) first. Francis himself stands for a personal, continuous process of transformation in which he chooses the Gospel as a basic orientation for his life or as the foundation of his self-leadership. He completely changed his life goals and defines the identity of the entire Franciscan organization. In this context, the core values of the Franciscans, such as evangelical poverty, serving character, and the aspect of brotherhood will be discussed. The Franciscan approach serves as a perfect field of practice for bringing together attitude and action. Finally, practical experiences from the Franciscan tradition, like developing of structural elements (e.g., the annual chapters) are related to the management context. By focusing on the practice and on transformation, the Franciscan example can inspire modern organizations and leadership practise in times of the current challenges.
KEYWORDS - Self-Leadership, Franciscan Spirituality, VUCA-World, Transformation, Leadership.
Faith and Management at Theological Seminaries
Johannes Schroeder
Leadership for theological training institutions has been subject to the influences of the academization of the organizations and a concurrent professionalization of the leader’s role. The doctoral thesis “Leading evangelical seminaries in German-speaking Europe: A transcendental phenomenology” (Schroder, 2016) is an empirical phenomenology among lead administrators of protestant seminaries in the free-church context. It describes the participants’ experiences in their lived phenomenon of leadership within the theoretical frameworks of spiritual leadership, servant leadership, and workplace spirituality. Six lead administrators voice their experiences regarding their management responsibilities and their spirituality. This article will summarize the study while focusing on findings and themes on issues of faith and management. As the most profound theme emerged the leader’s spirituality as the primary source of motivation and meaning for the tasks and experiences contained within their leadership role.
KEYWORDS - Spiritual Leadership, Servant Leadership, Workplace Spirituality
"Right-sized", Contextualized Faith: The Challenging Cooperation of FBDOs with Institutional Donors
Matthias Hoehne
This paper explores the challenging cooperation between faith-based development organizations (FBDOs) and institutional donors. It argues that FBDOs need to find their right-sized, contextualized faith by understanding their unique developmental and spiritual contributions and the challenges they face. Five distinctive contributions of FBDOs are described: extensive networks, community engagement at multiple levels, holistic and innovative approaches, higher trust level, and spiritual capital. Then five challenges they face are set forth: instrumentalization of FBDOs, a need constantly to prove themselves, transparency, proselytism, and downplay of spiritual identity. In light of the FBDOs distinctive contributions and challenges, three practical recommendations for FBDOs to achieve right-sized, contextualized faith are presented, namely to aim for a) right-sized, contextualized programs, b) right-sized funding, and c) right-sized faith.
KEYWORDS - FBDO, faith-based organizations, institutional donors, faith identity, development, spirituality
Ethical theory vs. practical worl-life: implications for organizations
Ana Maria Cabodevila
In business, the relationship between ethical theory and a practical work-life is challenging, since there is a strong ethics-practice contrast: work as the practical dimension and ethics as the theoretical dimension. There is, thus, a gap between theory and practice, and the imbalance is obvious in a majority of organizations, be they profit or non-profit. How do organizations respond to ethical theories of business? On the one hand, ethical convictions and practices may be understood as being merely subsets of national culture, and so are thus not, or only partially, considered in the workplace. On the other hand, organizations may perceive business ethics as being rather limiting with regard to practice owing to an abstract understanding of ethics (Brügger & Kretzschmar, 2015, p. 3). Business ethics theory is, thus, often perceived as being difficult to put into practice. The purpose of this article is to show that for many centuries, theory and practice, or faith and working life, were not separated in the way that they apparently are today. The aim is to use the examples shown to encourage organizations and responsible persons to break down the artificial divisions introduced by the Enlightenment in such a way that ethical thinking in working life no longer remains a foreign concept but can indeed find its way into daily work.
KEYWORDS - Business ethics, Enlightenment, NGO
On the reciprocal relationship between faith and management
Volker Kessler
This article describes the complex reciprocal relationship between faith and management. Firstly, faith-based organizations have to be managed. Some management methods will foster the faith; others will affect the faith negatively. Each faith group will have to look for management methods suited to the specific faith of that group. Secondly, faith has an influence on management. This can happen implicitly or by intention. An example of the latter is when managers just copy concepts from a faith group because of their success, without necessarily sharing their faith. Or it happens when believers want to implement the standards of their faith at work. The concept faith@work can be problematic if it is a single-faith approach within a secular work environment because it might lead to injustice. Due to the reciprocal relationship between faith and management, we can discover the re-entry of religious terms or concepts: these terms originate in Christian faith, enter the management sciences and from there re-enter the Christian faith. The examples “servant leadership” and “vision” show the subtle change of meaning that occurs when words wander between the two worlds, thus becoming “false friends” to the faith group.
KEYWORDS - Economic theology, Faith-based organizations, faith@work
Production Portfolio of Christian Charities - Doing the Right Thing and Keeping the Mission
Steffen Flessa
Christian charities are non-profit organizations (NPO) built on the Christian virtue of love. However, being a Christian NPO does not automatically ensure that Christian management is practiced. In this paper, the production portfolio is seen as the main criterion to determine whether a Christian NPO is indeed following Christian principles in its management. A flow chart is developed to define four categories of product lines: Touchstones are services with high relevance to the mission of the organization but without sufficient funding. Stars also make an important contribution to the achievement of the target system and are well-financed. Cash cows receive sufficient funding as well, but are not (anymore) relevant for the achievement of the original mission of the organization. Goiters might have been touchstones, stars and cash cows in former times, but today they neither do fulfil the mission of the organization, nor do they produce a positive margin. Christian charities should develop touchstones by constantly seeking upcoming existential needs of people and developing respective services. However, there is a risk that older and growing Christian charities lose their calling. Based on the Greiner curve we argue that the management of these organizations must motivate and coach their staff so that they remain dedicated to the original mission while the organization faces severe crises. By a quick and comprehensive analysis of the production program and support for the staff in particular during transgression phases, Christian management in Christian charities becomes a reality.
KEYWORDS - Christian management, Nonprofit Organization, Production portfolio
Network governance and co-production of community services. The interregional Italian - Swiss program D.E.A. (SIBRM9)
Veronica Giuliani, Davide Maggi, Cinzia Zugolaro
Over the last decades, the implementation of public networks to address social issues has become more the rule than the exception. Especially in the public sector, the interactions between different actors, and thus the activation of networks, ought to find shared solutions for problems of general interest that neither government nor other spheres of society can meet on their own. Using participative approaches, public networks reshape the traditional redistributive welfare paradigms and responsibilities in the production of social wellbeing. This paper studies the structure, roles, and performance of the network built to implement the interregional Italian-Swiss project D.E.A. (Diversità E Arti performative per una società inclusiva del terzo millennio), a European program that involves public administration, non-profit organization, universities and citizens, to promote and support the participation in civic activities of fragile people at risk of social exclusion. Using a combined approach this paper analyzes the case study both from analytical and governance perspectives: it proposes a unified theoretical framework based on the extant literature, to explore the nature and the related critical factors underlying the success of the public network under study.
KEYWORDS - network, governance , participation
How has Entrepreneurship Opportunity Formation amongst immigrants been influenced by the Covid-19 pandemic?
Osa-Godwin Osaghae, Thomas. M. Cooney
A body of evidence exists which suggests that stable economic conditions support entrepreneurial opportunity formation within a national context. However, despite the advent of the COVID-19 Pandemic and recent global economic uncertainty, entrepreneurial activity is continuing to flourish across the globe. This article explores the possible factors driving entrepreneurship opportunity formation in the current climate. The study employed a comparative narrative analysis of literature relating to entrepreneurship opportunity formation, environmental change (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic) and demand expansion (e.g. market extension resulting from environmental changes). The triangulation of the literature from these diverse topics leads to the conclusion that environmental changes and irregularity creates demand expansion that can drive entrepreneurship in any climate. This article contributes to knowledge by suggesting that irregular events within the environment (not stable economic growth alone) can positively influence entrepreneurship opportunity formation.
KEYWORDS - Environment, climate change, entrepreneurship opportunity
The Importance of Stakeholder Collaboration and Co-creation in the Social Innovation Creation Process
Emmanuel Osigwe
Over the years social innovation (SI) has been offering useful solutions to social problems in societies. SIs are created by social enterprises (SEs) that may operate as a non-profit, for-profit, or hybrid enterprise with the primary mission to create social impact to benefit societies. The literature on SI is emerging, thus greater attention is given to understanding and conceptualising SI. Recent studies have shown that the process of SI largely remains unexplored. As such, little is known about the importance and the role of external actors in the process. This study examines the importance of stakeholder co-creation within the SI ecosystem through inductive analysis of interview data from 20 SEs in four countries. The study finds SE seek strategic collaborations, engage critical beneficiaries, and explore social networks external to their enterprise when seeking to co-create SI.
KEYWORDS - Social innovation, Stakeholder engagement, Collaboration
The Social Responsibility and the Studies about the Police Forces: An Analytical Review
Mónica de Melo Freitas, Ivone Freire e Costa, Marco Meneguzzo, Rocco Frondizi
This study aimed to verify how Social Responsibility in polices is being discussed by authors from different scientific areas. The main goal means to identify the ethical values and the practices invoked by the authors to justify the phenomena of social responsibility in police sector. Our initial hypothesis is that the authors of police studies are approaching it as merely a result of the implementation of models and practices typical of the privative sector into the public sector through the New Public Management. During our study we had found 2.010 papers that discussed the Social Responsibility in public sector but only 18 tried to understand it in police forces applying authors from Law, Criminal and Justice, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Economy, Business and Accountability Sciences and Neuro- Cognitive Sciences and comprehensive models of analyzing. The findings produced by the study showed that Social Responsibility is an unexplored theme until today in police studies. It highlighted also that the New Public Management theories offer an interesting framework theory to understand the Social Responsibility phenomena within police forces. Whatever, it enforces the necessity to understand the Social Responsibility in institutional and cognitive ways because authors appointed that their personal values conduct the modes in which normative orientations are understood and applied by them. This paper is innovative because offers new insights about the Social Responsibility within police forces, but it did not produce inputs that allow characterize the performance of the police forces in any country.
KEYWORDS - Social Responsibility , New Public Management , Police Forces
Assessing the key barriers to innovation acceptance in Iranian construction companies
Hadi Sarvari, Daniel W.M. Chan, Reza Soltani
The emergence of innovation in recent decades has attracted the attention of major companies around the world to its productivity and importance. As a developing country, Iran has great potential in the construction industry, but due to the lack of a proper strategy and the lack of a favorable process in innovation, growth and development has not been appropriate. The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritize the key barriers to innovation in Iranian construction companies, which have been answered by 62 board members, consultants, contractors, supervisor and computational engineers, experts and suppliers in the construction industry. About 60 percent of participants are from the private sector, 29 percent from the public sector, and 11 percent from both sectors. Most of the participants were between 25 and 45 years old and the majority had a master's and bachelor's degree and had a experience of 5 to 20 years. In the questionnaire, the main factors of research, including: cultural, financial, organizational, and managerial, had the most effect, and human, investigate, and research factors had a moderate effect, and external factors had the least effect. The results showed that the main determinants of non-use of innovation in construction companies can be classified into internal and external factors. The factors was evaluated based on the 5-point Likert scale measurement. The results shows that all factors identified as barriers to innovation acceptance in Iranian construction companies.
KEYWORDS - Innovation, Barriers, Construction
Sustainability: Future Orientation Through Engagement of MSMEs
Deepti Prakash, Parul Manchanda, Twinkle Arora
Purpose: Enterprises have been facing a concern from the government to take an initiative in the various environmental maintenance and in the implementation of various sustainable practices laterally with the satisfaction of the customer demands. Thus, the enterprises are enforced to implement sustainable ways of doing business, which would help them achieve competitive advantage in the long run. This paper intends to institutionalise the various sustainability measures (through the leadership approaches and the theoretical approaches) in the various Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).

Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is a general review for highlighting the varied reasons and unreasons behind the various enterprises practising sustainability initiatives in the real business scenario. A thorough and wide exploratory search was made from the existing literature with the help of online databases. The results are presented in the form of descriptive findings.

Findings: The research paper concludes that, sustainability is not a unitary concept, but involves a throng of efforts (to explain, the activities, actors and the resources employed). The MSMEs require explicit thought, in case of business plans for sustainability as it is by one way or another not equivalent for the large firms. It has also been brought about that the MSMEs require a different way to support sustainability in comparison to the various large organisationswhich hold a varied set profile and resources.

Practical implications: Sustainability, today is a concern for everybody in the civilisation, this is because of the changes in the climate that have been observed and the growing problem of global warming. This research work, may enable the MSME managers to reconsider the whole business strategy, and making sustainability as an important inclusive element of the same, and thus practising it too.

Research Limitations: Sustainability, has been an important concern to the society in general which points out that there can be plenty opportunities for various organisations to identify strategies that will have a bearing and may positively advance the social and environmental performance. However, this research work, does not provide an empirical evidence and support but offers insights on engaging MSMEs in sustainability.

Originality/ Value: This research contributes to the area of literature by providing a review, for the various considerations and occasionsfor the various business strategies for sustainable development and its varied applications to the certainties of business operations in various MSME enterprises.
KEYWORDS - MSME, Small and Medium Enterprises, Sustainable Development, Leadership Approaches, Business Sustainability, Environmental Management Practices.
Tongesai Mpofu, Shephard Makurumidze
COVID-19 pandemic brought a lot of challenges for the global community from the year 2020. The spread of this virus led to unparalleled health crisis in all the countries across the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused unprecedented panic and disruptions for both the public and private sectors and is considered an experiential threat to the global economy with governments and businesses grappling with the effects. In Zimbabwe, the pandemic has caused challenges and opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and in some cases threatening their own survival and forcing many SMEs to change their focus in order to manage the crisis. Some SMEs have adopted crisis management and alternative business response efforts. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the challenges of COVID-19 pandemic to SMEs in Zimbabwe and identify the emerging opportunities arising as a result of the pandemic. The methodology of this article is secondary information where various literature on challenges and opportunities for small to medium businesses was analyzed. Secondary data results show that many small businesses are suffering and the COVID-19 caused destruction for many small to medium businesses. It is difficult to survive with low income, jobs were lost and frail marketing performance. Findings from this study show that amongst the crisis caused by COVID-19, numerous opportunities have also emerged for innovative Zimbabwean entrepreneurs to explore. The firms should reduce expenses, adapt to new technology in order to be competitive and survive and utilise other business opportunities that have been opened up by COVID-19 pandemic. The study recommends that SMEs should first assess the damages of the pandemic to the businesses and then find the strategies to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and maximize the new opportunities. Furthermore, the study recommends the companies to adopt digital marketing, and use different alternatives to deliver their products and recover from crisis.
KEYWORDS - COVID-19, Pandemic, SMEs, Challenges, Emerging Opportunities, Digital
Five Lessons by C.S. Lewis' Narnia, Discovered for Agile Teams
Emanuel Kessler
People could learn from stories. In this article, the question is asked: What can people working agile learn from “The Chronicles of Narnia”? With this goal in mind, five scenes are explained and the lessons are worked out. Since there are a large number of ways of working agile, this article is focused on the Kanban Method and Scrum as agile ideas.
KEYWORDS - C.S. Lewis, Narnia, agile, Kanban Method, Scrum
Automatic Diacritic Restoration for Northern Sotho
Gabofetswe Alafang Malema, Moffat Motlhanka, Boago Okgetheng
Diacritic markers are usually not inserted in text for convenience as users type text. However, text without diacritic marks could affect the quality of its analysis as it may affect how it is pronounced and its meaning among others. The number of diacritics and the impact of not inserting diacritics vary from language to language. The processes of restoring diacritics in the text can be looked at as language-dependent and language-independent and also as word-based or syllable based. Northern Sotho language uses two diacritic markers to indicate pronunciation and also distinguish between homographs in some cases. Very little research has been done on diacritics restoration in the Northern Sotho language. In this paper, we show that morphological word transformations are consistent in how they insert or not insert diacritics in derived words. An input word is reduced by a morphological analyzer to its root form. The accented form of the root word is retrieved from the diacritic dictionary. This word, together with morphological rules are used to determine diacritics of the input word. The implemented tool gave a recall performance of 86% on test data. Most errors were due to failures in the morphological analysis of the input word.
KEYWORDS - Northern Sotho, Diacritic Restoration, Rule based
A Statistical Study of Arabic Discourse Connectors in a Diachronic Bespoke Corpus of the Years 1950 and 2018
Sarah Ajlan Alajlan
This paper discusses changes of Arabic discourse connectors in newspaper writing by comparing two distinct time periods: 1950 and 2018. It attempts to provide an answer to the question: How has the usage of Arabic discourse connectors changed, quantitatively and qualitatively, in Arabic newspapers as evidenced in the 1950 and 2018 sub-corpora? A specialized bespoke corpus has been built specifically for this study, Leeds Bespoke Corpus of Arabic Newspaper Writings (LBCANW), that contains rare material from the year 1950 and recent material from the year 2018 (Alajlan, 2019). It is part of an ongoing PhD study that approaches the changes in the lexicon and syntax via lexis (Sinclair, 1991). The research methodology includes: recording the frequency of occurrences; normalizing the frequencies to per million words; and calculating the percentage of change by using %DIFF value (Gabrielatos and Marchi, 2011). Discourse connectors are arranged in descending order according to %DIFF value. Discourse connectors that are found in one sub-corpora are placed in separate tables. The results show noticeable degrees of change in most of the 95 discourse connectors included in this study across the two sub-corpora 1950 and 2018. Finally, detailed linguistic discussion of the changes in five selected discourse connectors is included with concordance lines examples from the corpus using the statistical information obtained from this study.
KEYWORDS - Arabic Newspaper Writing, Language Change, Syntax, Discourse Connectors, Diachronic Corpus, Type of Change, %DIFF Value, Effect Size.
Setswana Parts of Speech Tagging: Indirect Relative
Gabofetswe Malema, Ontiretse Ishmael, Boago Okgetheng, Goaletsa Rammidi
Setswana relatives have been shown to have a wide range of structures compared to other qualificatives. They can take negation, tense and can be recursively extended using other qualificatives, adverbs, noun phrases, and verb phrases. Studies have also shown that the structure of indirect relatives is more challenging as it is less regular compared to that of direct relatives. As a result, proposed Setswana Relatives taggers performed badly on indirect relatives. In this study, we propose the use of noun phrase and verb phrase constructs to represent the structure of indirect relatives at a high level. This approach shows that indirect relatives are also regular making them also amenable to the use of regular expressions for their identification in a sentence. This study investigates the extent to which noun phrases and verb phrases could be used to construct a regular structure for indirect relatives. We developed patterns for indirect relatives which we then implemented in Python NLTK regular expressions. The proposed tagger has a recall of 69% and precision of 62%. The tagger fails in some instances due to challenges in identifying its sub-components of noun phrases, verb phrases, and qualificatives.
KEYWORDS - Parts of Speech Tagging, Setswana Relative, Rule based POS Tagging.
A Method of Constructing Balanced Repeated Measurement Designs for First Order Residual Effects in Information Security
Chen-Chi Shing, Lee-Hur Shing
Very few papers in information security fields discuss repeated measurement designs and analysis. Balanced repeated measurement designs for first order residual effects are used to estimate both treatment and residual effects more precisely.The treatments for these effects can be types of security controls. In this paper we address the need of repeated measurement designs and propose a method of constructing them using both complete and incomplete block designs.This paper attempts to clear up the definition of Balanced repeated measurement designs for first order residual effects designs (called BRM1) first given by Williams and the definition (called BRMP) given by Patterson. Some properties are also discussed how to use them in practice. Further research will be conducted for minimal and optimal repeated measurement designs in the information security field.
KEYWORDS - Balanced Repeated Measurement Design, Changeover Design, Carryover Design, Information Security, Balanced Incomplete Block Design.
Amit Mishra
Rootkits tends to allow an attacker operate in the host system unnoticed. The stealthy nature of the Rootkits makes them difficult to detect especially when they operate in the Kernel. One of the ways which Malware enters the Kernel is through the Kernel Driver. This research work therefore, used a Static analysis approach to extract features from various Windows Kernel Drivers. 500 Rootkit drivers and 500 benign drivers were collected from various infected computers and Internet respectively. The drivers were first dissembled to extract the native API functions and other functionalities to generate a set of features after which Feature selection is performed using Information gain algorithm. The selected features were then used to train the Naïve Bayes and Decision tree Algorithm. An Accuracy of 98.3% was achieved in distinguishing the malicious driver from its legitimate counterpart using Decision tree while an accuracy of 95.3% was achieved using Naïve Bayes. The performances of the two model were then compared using Accuracy, Precision, AUC, and Error rate.
KEYWORDS - Performance Evaluation,, Datamining Algorithm, , SVMS, Network Security, Virus, Malware
A Review on Library Fuzzing Tools
Jia Song
Fuzzing is a powerful software security testing technique. It can be automated and can test programs with many randomly generated fuzzing inputs to trigger overlooked bugs. Libraries and functions are commonly used by programmers to be directly called from their programs. However, most programmers would simply use public libraries without doubting whether these libraries are secure or not.To help with it, library fuzzing has been proposed.Fuzzing a whole program is very common, however, fuzzing a standalone function or library is challenging. Different from an executable program, functions cannot be run on themselves. In addition, randomly generating certain parameters might break the relationships between parameters and therefore result in a large number of false positives.There has been not much research in the area of library fuzzing. However, library or function fuzzing could be a very useful testing tool for programmers and developers. This paper reviews the recent research work related to library fuzzing and function fuzzing. The results may be helpful to any researchers who plan to explore this research area.
KEYWORDS - Fuzzing, Library Fuzzing, Software Testing, Function Fuzzing.
Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Comparative Study
Fatimah Khalil Aljwari, Hajer Abdullah Alwadei, Aseel Abdullah Alfaidi
The security in wireless sensor networks (WSNS) is a very important issue. These networks may be exposed it different attacks. With this in mind, researchers propose in this area variety of security techniques for this purpose, and this article describes security in wireless sensor networks. Discussed threats and attacks of wireless sensor networks. The article also aims to provide the basic information related to determining essential requirements for the protection WSNs. Lastly, we mention some security mechanisms against these threats and attacks in Wireless Sensor Network.
KEYWORDS - Wireless Sensor Networks, Security Requirements, Attacks
Product Sentiment Analysis for Amazon Reviews
Arwa M. AlQahtani
Recently, eCommerce has witnessed rapid development. As a result, online purchasing has grown, and that has led to growth in online customer reviews of products. The implied opinions in customer reviews have a massive influence on customer's decision purchasing, since the customer's opinion about the product is influenced by other consumers' recommendations or complaints. Accordingly, product purchases could increase or not based on consumers' reviews. Also, customer opinions could help firms improve insights into customer interests, hence improve their products or services. This research provides an analysis of the Amazon reviews dataset and studies and sentiment classification with machine learning approaches. First, the reviews were transformed into vector representation using different techniques, i.e., bag-of-words, TF-IDF, and GloVe. Then, we trained various machine learning algorithms, i.e., Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Bidirectional Long-Short Term Memory, and BERT. After that, we evaluated the models using accuracy, F1-score, precision, recall, and cross-entropy loss function. The experiment was conducted on multiclass classifications, then we selected the best performing model and re-trained it on the binary classification.
KEYWORDS - Amazon, Data Analytics, Product Sentiment
Performance evaluation of Denial of Service Attack Detection on SIP based VoIP.
Abdirisaq, Othman O. Khalifa, Nantha Kumar Subramaniam
Recent trends have revealed that SIP based IP-PBX DoS attacks contribute to most overall IP-PBX attacks which is resulting in loss of revenues and quality of service in telecommunication providers. IP-PBX face challenges in detecting and mitigating malicious traffic. In this research, Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine learning detection & prevention algorithm were developed to detect this type of attacks Two other techniques were benchmarked decision tree and Naïve Bayes. The training phase of the machine learning algorithm used proposed real-time training datasets benchmarked with two training datasets from CICIDS and NSL-KDD. Proposed real-time training dataset for SVM algorithm achieved highest detection rate of 99.13% while decision tree and Naïve Bayes has 93.28% & 86.41% of attack detection rate, respectively. For CICIDS dataset, SVM algorithm achieved highest detection rate of 76.47% while decision tree and Naïve Bayes has 63.71% & 41.58% of detection rate, respectively. Using NSL-KDD training dataset, SVM achieved 65.17%, while decision tree and Naïve Bayes has 51.96% & 38.26% of detection rate, respectively. The time taken by the algorithms to classify the attack is very important. SVM gives less time (2.9 minutes) for detecting attacks while decision tree and naïve Bayes gives 13.6 minutes 26.2 minutes, respectively. Proposed SVM algorithm achieved the lowest false negative value of (87 messages) while decision table and Naïve Bayes achieved false negative messages of 672 and 1359, respectively.
KEYWORDS - Voice over IP, , Session Initiation Protocol, Denial of Service
The research is aimed at developing a real time intruder detection system using facial recognition and deployable on automated teller machines in Nigerian Banking sector. This research was implemented using python programming language and raspberry pi device. Haar cascade classifiers was used to implement face detection and recognition. A total of six thousand images were used to train the classifier. Five thousand positive images and one thousand negative images. The performance of the result was evaluated using five major metrics; Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision and processing time. The results obtained have sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 94%, precision 94.1%, accuracy 92.2%, a maximum of 16 seconds was taken to detect a face and a maximum of 45 seconds was recorded to recognize a detected face. Achieving a maximum of 45 seconds with 92.2% accuracy real time, indicates this work can be deployed on any real-life system.
KEYWORDS - Image recognition., face detection, raspberry pi
Session Initiation Protocol: Security Issues Overview
Bruno Cruz, Rui Filipe Pereira
The leading method of correspondence is clearly through voice trade. There are essentially two different ways through which voice can be effortlessly communicated on an organization: PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) and VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol).

Mainly represented by SIP, VoIP protocols and implementations contain several vulnerabilities, particularly related to their complexities and in the face of interoperability of telephony equipments.

It was by identifying a lack of literature with focus in security and potential vulnerabilities of the SIP Protocol that we propose in this document. We attempt to provide a theoretical analysis from security aspects used by one of the signaling call protocols, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

It is intended to lucidly illustrate and identify threats, vulnerabilities, security mechanisms, developed methods and protocols and, finally over time improvements.
KEYWORDS - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), SIP Security, Voice over IP (VoIP).
MVC Architecture from Maintenance Quality Attributes Perspective
Safia Nahhas
This paper provides an explanatory study on MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture from the perspective of maintenance. It aims to answer a knowledge question about how MVC architecture supports the maintainability quality attributes. This knowledge boosts the potential of utilizing the maintainability of MVC from several sides. To fulfill this purpose, we investigate the main mechanism of MVC with focusing on maintainability quality attributes. Accordingly, we form and discuss MMERFT maintainability set that consists of Modifiability, Modularity, Extensibility, Reusability, Flexibility, and Testability. Besides investigating the mechanism of MVC regarding MMERFT quality attributes, we explain how MVC supports maintainability by examining measures and approaches such as: complexity of code by using a cyclomatic approach, re-engineering process, use of components, time needed to detect bugs, number of code lines, parallel maintenance, automation, massive assignment, and others. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to providing a concrete view of how MVC gets along with maintainability aspects in general and its several attributes particularly. This view helps to maximize the opportunity of taking advantage of MVC's maintainability features that can encourage reconsidering the maintenance decisions and the corresponding estimated cost. The study focuses on maintainability since software that has high maintainability will have the opportunity to evolve, and consequently, it will have a longer life. Our study shows that MVC generally supports maintainability and its attributes, and it is a recommended choice when maintenance is a priority.
KEYWORDS - MVC Architecture, Maintainability, Modifiability, Modularity, Extensibility, Reusability, Flexibility, Testability.
Design of an Omni-Direction Robot with Spherical Wheels
Dominic Campbell, Emanuele Lindo Secco
We proposed the design of an omni-direction robot which embeds 4 spherical wheels. The wheels are connected to 4 DC motors and controlled through an L298N boards which is powered with 2 LIPO batteries. A low-cost Arduino board oversees the system by controlling the motion and speed of the motor.

The wheels of the robot integrate an omni-directional mechanism and all components have been designed in Fusion 360 (Autodesk ), manufactured with a 3D printer (Ender 5) an then assemble and integrated with the hardware and software of the system.

Preliminary tests show that the proposed solution is promising and provide a good reference for the manufacturing of low-cost robot.
KEYWORDS - Omni-directional Wheel, Osaka Wheel Mechanism, Wheeled Robotics.
Reviewing Assistive Human-Robot Experiences for Inclusive Human-Robot Interaction
Aishah Shah, Saira Iftikhar, Naila Kamran Chaudhry
Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) and collaboration have gained immense popularity recently, owing to the new mechanisms and advancements in the field of computing and the symbiotic nature of the involved processes. It relates to the ever-dynamic means of communication between humans and robots. Such interactions work both ways, i.e., inputs and commands from humans and the expression of the robot's interpretations. A significant amount of work has been done in this area; however, there are still challenges in assistive human-robot experiences. This study aims to review the literature on assistive robots to bring the current research together, identify persistent gaps and challenges, and recommend ways to enhance human-robot interaction. This paper covers critical aspects of assistive robots in social environments for sociophysical needs and assistance for children and the elderly with special needs. Given advancements in elements like sensor technologies, manufacturing materials, machine learning, control methodologies, and computer capacity, the subject of assistive robots is bound to see tremendous results. The findings in this paper present gaps, issues, and challenges in todays assistive robots that hinder human-robot interaction. The findings can be used to summarize the current works and provide a base for technological innovations to enhance the interactions between humans and their partner robots.
KEYWORDS - Human-Robot Collaboration, Assistive Human-Robot Experiences, Inclusion.
Enhanced Matched Filter Theory and Applications
Kaveh Heidary
Enhanced matched filter (EMF) comprises a distortion tolerant correlation filter and its associated threshold. It is an effective signal detection tool with superior immunity to noise, distortion, and clutter, used for imagery-based authentication, classification, recognition, and tracking of targets of interest. The EMF is synthesized by combining multiple image templates of the target of interest, acquired under prescribed target states and view conditions. In autonomous vision and tracking systems, one EMF can potentially replace copious manifold of exemplar images without adversely affecting the classifier precision. This leads to proportional reduction of operation phase computational load, and concomitant smaller footprint, lighter, faster, and more power efficient smart vision systems. This paper develops the underlying theory of the EMF and provides analytical models of its operation. Filter performance results based on analytical formulations and empirical studies are presented and are compared to the performance data using virtual and real test images.
KEYWORDS - Enhanced Matched Filter, Correlation Filtering, Distortion Tolerant
A Hybrid Face Recognition Method based on Face Feature Descriptors and Support Vector Machine Classifier
Rafika Harrabi Harrabi
Face recognition is a technique used to identify/verify human identity based on their facial features. A technique allows, based on facial features to authenticate / identify a person. However, for human identification or identity authentication based on face recognition technology, the appropriate determination of the face features plays a crucial role, since the identification of the Human is given directly by the classification of these characteristics.

In this paper, we propose a new face recognition method based on face feature descriptors and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. The face feature descriptors are used to extract and select the statistical features, whereas, the SVM algorithm is employed to classify the different features and to obtain optimal Human face recognition.

The feature extraction step is the major phase of the recognition cycle. It is employed to extract the features for any human face located in the first step. The accomplishment of this step controls the success of subsequent steps. For that, the main objective of this work is to determine of the best method of feature extraction.

To do the indexation of persons face, the Histogram of Oriented Gradient features (HOG), Gabor features and Discrete Cosine Transform features (DCT) are employed to extract the feature vectors for any human face.

In addition, the face recognition method, proposed in this paper, is conceptually different and explores a new strategy. In fact, instead of considering an existing face recognition procedure, the proposed technique rather explores the benefit of combining several approaches.This method is a hybrid face recognition technique, which integrates both the results of the HOG, and the SVM technique, in which the HOG method is used as the initial seed for the classification procedure.

Experimental results from the proposed method are validated and the face recognition rate for the ''ORL'' and cropped ''Yale B'' datasets is evaluated, and then a comparative study versus existing techniques is presented. The highest face recognition rate of the used dataset is obtained by the proposed method. In addition, the use of the proposed HOG_SVM method to build face recognition systems can achieve excellent results when the dataset size is large, and therefore it can be used in different security and authentication systems.
KEYWORDS - Face Recognition, Feature Extraction, HOG, SVM, DCT, Gabor, Classification.
Kernel-Induced Fuzzy C-Means Approach with Adaptive Mean Filter in Spatial Constraints for SAR Image Segmentation
Sicong Li
Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) has been broadly used for semantic image segmentation as one typical approach of unsupervised learning. However, in terms of speckle noise corrupted data like SAR images, traditional FCM algorithms perform poorly in robustness in segmentation tasks. This paper proposes a novel improved FCM algorithm to enhance the robustness to speckle noise in semantic image segmentation. First, our proposed method incorporates adaptive mean filter into spatial constraint. Second, any pixel and its neighborhoods are taken into consideration together in spatial constraint in our objective function. Third, in the final step, a voting algorithm is implemented to further remove the remained noise so as to improve the segmentation accuracy. Besides, Gaussian kernel distance is adopted in our proposed method instead of Euclidean distance and our results reconfirm that Gaussian kernel distance is more effective in segmentation under speckle noise. Our experimental results show the robustness to speckle noise in segmentation result get effectively enhanced throughout such improvements.
KEYWORDS - Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), Mean Filter, Spatial Constraints
A proposed Approach for Unique Random Key Generation
Abdulrahman Q. Hammod , Dalal N. Hamood
Regarding network security, many cryptographic techniques use random numbers. To boost its robustness, a precise quantity of randomness must be used to make encryption and decryption unexpected. This paper offered a mechanism that chooses a distinctive number based on data instead of a temporal seed, which is what the bulk of applications now do. The suggested solution fixes the issue because it is the basis for Unique Random Generation and uses the parallel application. This approach has been tried, and the findings demonstrate that it is easy to use and yields the best results because it chooses a distinct number based purely on data. The random key is better than regular keys since it is dynamic whereas regular keys are static. When using seeds with the appropriate levels of entropy, this method can generate sequences whose randomness cannot be distinguished from that of an ideal random generator, with a confidence level of 99%. Additionally, the proposed method used base=2 to produce the highest entropy, the lowest space complexity, and the highest time complexity than methods based time.
KEYWORDS - Random Number Generator, Binary Tree List,, Ranges
Flare – A Community Based SOS Application
Sanil Arun Chawla
This paper presents a mobile based application that will enable to solve numerous problems with a simple solution. The project - ‘ Flare ‘ focuses on creating a community based application wherein the community helps and grows together. The application is called Flare , keeping in mind the actual flare gun that is used by like sailors or like army-men in times of need and they launch an actual flare. Similarly any user can launch a flare – a call for help.
KEYWORDS - SOS , Android , Software
Hybrid Pair Programming in Global Software Development
Irdina Wanda Syahputri, Ridi Ferdiana
Pair programming exhibits direct communication in the same place, same time, and same context. In global software development or distributed software development, pair programming cannot be applied in full-time development because of the limited interaction, space, and time between developers. We aim to understand the pair programming pattern in global software development. We pinpoint the developer's activity based on their work habits between solo and pair activities. Furthermore, we propose hybrid pair programming to implement pair programming and solo programming in global software development. In this experiment, we construct an experiment to understand how pair programming and solo programming are applied in a software project in the academic context. We have three groups. The first group will use solo programming to develop their project. The second group will use pair programming to develop their project. The third group will use a combination of solo and pair programming. We do triangulation to understand how the implementation of hybrid pair programming in global software development affects. Our results show that pair programming cannot be applied in global software development activity. Some activities work well in pairs, and some activities work well solo. In conjunction, As a result, the organization may implement pair programming and solo programming in a global software development environment through our proposed practices, namely hybrid pair programming. These basic findings are consistent with research showing that hybrid pair programming can work well in a global software development environment. However, pair programming provides better productivity than solo programming (55% better). Hybrid pair programming can improve coordination, scheduling, and technical issues and boost solo programming productivity.
KEYWORDS - Global Software Development, Pair Programming, Distributed Software Development
Developing Cross-Platform Library using Multi-OS Engine
Dilkhaz Yaseen Mohammed, Peter Cooper
Libraries are of great importance in the development of mobile apps. Mobile application development services have reached a higher level with APIs. When developers develop applications for mobile devices, they often rely on APIs for connectivity. In fact, APIs accelerate mobile development and provide exceptional agility for organizations undergoing their own digital transformation. As a result of developing a library and then sharing it with the world, others can benefit from it in their own projects. The programmer needs to make sure that he uses APIs available for both the Android and iOS platforms. The programmer\\\\\\\'s creation of an interface for accessing platform-specific functions from the library and creating Android and iOS applications in its projects accelerates the development of software projects. In this paper, the programmer uses Intel’s Multi-OS Engine Technology to give the possibility to use Java capabilities to develop native mobile applications for Apple iOS and Android devices, providing the native look, feel, and performance. This technology provides a stand-alone plug-in that integrates into Android Studio on Windows and Apple Mac OS development machines. When developing a Java open source project, the common conclusion the programmer always ends up with is to share the produced outcomes with the developer community, which should be the least objective in the Java world then utilize the library. Then utilize the library in both Android and iOS apps.
KEYWORDS - Cross-Platform, Java, Retrofit
A systematic literature review on effort estimation in agile software development using machine learning techniques
Pranay Tandon, Ugrasen Suman
Agile software development is a way of frequent or continuous delivery of software. Nowadays many software industries have adopted agile for software development. The predictability and stability of traditional methods were replaced with flexibility, adaptability and agility to generate maximum value with collaboration and interaction, as quickly as possible. Effort estimation is the focused area in agile software development to achieve customer collaboration, respond to change and deliver a working software on time. Machine learning is an advanced tool to obtain effort estimation with available project data and widely used in IT industries to get accurate estimations. In this paper, we report our findings through systematic literature review that aimed at identifying the applicability, limitations and individual result of most used machine learning techniques for effort estimation in agile software development. We have also discussed suggested attributes of a robust machine learning model to achieve more accurate effort estimation.
KEYWORDS - Agile software development, Effort estimation, Machine learning
Factors Affecting Software Maintenance Cost Of Python Programs
One of the primary areas of software project management is cost estimation. The cost estimation problem still remains unsolved today because of the ineffective cost estimation techniques which are unsuitable for handling current development methods. Software maintenance costs can be estimated using a variety of models such as Construction Cost Model (COCOMO), Software Life Cycle Management (SLIM), Software maintenance project effort estimation model and others but more work needs to be done in developing models that can accommodate programs from new programming paradigms. The primary objective of this research was to recognize factors affecting software maintenance cost of python programs and rank them according to relevance. To achieve the objective, a literature review study was done to identify factors that influence software maintenance cost followed by an expert opinion survey to ascertain which of the factors were relevant for Python programs.52 Python developers and project managers were identified using snowballing technique and asked to rate the cost drivers in order of relevance using a five point scale. Descriptive statistics were used to carry out results analysis. The results indicated that all the 18 factors affected maintenance cost of Python programs. The factors were ranked based on percentage mean of frequencies. Six additional factors were also identified by the experts and ranked. The factors will be considered as input parameters for a cost estimation model to be developed in the near future for estimating the cost of maintaining python programs.
KEYWORDS - Software Maintenance, cost estimation, expert opinion
Covid-19 Data Analysis in Tarakan With Poisson Regression and Spatial Poisson Process
Ika Nurwanitantya Wardani, Ayunin Sofro, Khusnia Nurul Khikmah
Coronavirus-2019 Disease or COVID-19 had entered Indonesia since March 2020 and continues to spread until now. This included a small town on the edge of North Kalimantan Province, namely Tarakan. COVID-19 cases have outspread in Tarakan, until June 8, 2020, there have been 46 cases of such exposure. The cause of the outspread and how its outspread patterns weren’t known clearly yet. This case encouraged researchers to conduct this research. One relevant approach was to use Generalized Linear Models (GLM). This method was divided into two, including deterministic namely Poisson Regression and Stochastic with Spatial Poisson Process. The variables used in this study were rainfall, population density, and temperature in each village in Tarakan. From the Poisson Regression analysis, it was found that only one factor affected, namely temperature. The results were then refined with the Spatial Poisson Process, where in addition to the influencing factors also the distribution patterns are obtained. The analysis showed that the pattern of case distribution was included in the non-homogeneous Poisson process criteria, then the model of the case density intensity was obtained using regression. From the model obtained, it was known that the covariate variables that significantly influence the rainfall and temperature. When compared with general Poisson regression analysis, the results showed the variables that have a significant effect ware only the average temperature. Thus, a better method was used namely the Spatial Poisson Process. It was also shown by the two models IAC value, where the AIC value of the Spatial Poisson Process model was smaller than the Poisson Regression.
KEYWORDS - Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Poisson Regression, Spatial Poisson Process