Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Selection of Process Variables Used for Gas Metal Arc Welding of Low Carbon Steel Plates by Metallographical Method
Joseph Ifeanyichukwu Achebo, Raphael S. Ebhojiaye
Pages - 1 - 10     |    Revised - 31-07-2015     |    Published - 31-08-2015
Volume - 6   Issue - 1    |    Publication Date - August 2015  Table of Contents
Brinell Hardness Number (BHN), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), Metallography, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), Weld Factor.
Many methods have been employed by various researchers to determine the quality of the weld made from either varying the welding process parameters or altering the chemical composition of the weldment by selecting an appropriate filler metal and shielding gas mixtures. This study has taken a step further, to also evaluate the quality of the welds by applying the metallographical method to select process variables used for gas metal arc welding of low carbon steel plates. An average of 64welds was obtained by varying the process variables developed by a matrix design presented in Table 1 through Table 3.

The welds were classified by a metallographical method as either very good, bad or very bad. The corresponding impact strengths were also obtained. Standard deviation of the responses was obtained and the selection criteria was established and was used to select weld sample number 56 which had the highest weld factor of 0.87, as the weld with the best microstructure, strength and quality. The mechanical properties of the selected weld showed that the UTS and BHN values conformed to those from reported literature
1 Google Scholar 
2 CiteSeerX 
3 refSeek 
4 Scribd 
5 SlideShare 
6 PdfSR 
A.R. Bahman and E. Alialhosseini. “Change in Hardness, Yield Strength and Ultimate Tensile Strength of Welded Joints produced in st 37 Grade Steel.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 12, pp.1162 – 1164, 2010.
Achebo, J.I. “Augmentation of Carburized Mild Steel Weld Properties to Control Chafing Incidence”. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 7, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 88-92, 2011.
D. Ren, F. Xiao, P. Tian, X. Wang, and B. Liao. “Effects of Welding Wire Composition and Welding process on the Weld Metal Toughness of Surbmerged Arc Welded Pipeline Steel.” International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 16, pp. 65 – 70, 2009.
G. Pluphrach. “Study of the Effect of Solidification on Graphite Flakes Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an ASTM a-48 Gray Cast Iron Using Steel Molds.” Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 32 (6), pp. 613 – 618, 2010.
J. Achebo and W. E. Odinikuku. “Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters Using Standard Deviation (SDV) and Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA)”. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE), 3, pp. 298 – 308, 2015.
J.I. Achebo and M. J. Omoregie “Application of multi-criteria decision making optimization tool for determining mild steel weld properties and process parameters using TOPSIS”. International Journal of Materials Science and Applications; 4(3): pp. 149-158, 2015.
J.I. Achebo, “Influence of Alloying Elements on HAZ Toughness of Multilayer Welded Steel Joints.” International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology. Vol. 3, No. 4. pp. 7883, 2011.
J.I. Achebo.“Optimization of Fluence Energy in Relation to Weld Properties based on Vogel Approximation Method.” Delivered at the 2012 World Congress on Engineering: International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London, July 4–6, pp1830-1834, 2012 (available online at http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCE2012/).
O. Balkan, H. Demirer and H. Yildirim. “Morphological and Mechanical Properties of Hot Gas Welded PE, PP and PVC Sheets.” Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 31, Issue 1, pp.60 –72, 2008.
P. Cavaliere and A. Perrone. “Multi-Objective optimization of Steel fusion welding.” Workshop IGF, Forni di Sopra (UD), Italia, 1 – 3 marzo 2012, pp. 26 – 32. 2012.
R. Kumar and S. Kumar. “Study of Mechanical Properties in Mild Steel Using Metal Inert Gas Welding”. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 751-756, 2014.
R.P. Singh, R.K. Garg and D.K. Shukla. “Parametric Effect on Mechanical Properties in Submerged Arc Welding Process-A Review.” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol.4, No.2, pp. 747-757, 2012.
S. Topolska and J. Labanowski. “Effect of Microstructure on Impact Toughness of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steels.” Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 36, Issue 2, pp. 142 – 149, 2009.
S.P. Lu, O.Y. Kwon, T.B.Kim and K.H.Kim, “Microstructure and Wear Property of Fe-Mn-CrMo-V Alloy Cladding by Submerged Arc Welding.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 147, pp. 191-196, 2004.
T.H. Chen,K.L. Weng and J.R. Yang. “The Effect of High Temperatures Exposure on the Microstructural Stability and Toughness Property in a 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel.” Materials Science and Engineering A338/1-2, pp. 259 – 270, 2002.
V. Kuzueu, M. Ceylan, M. Aksoy and M. Kaplan. “Investigation of the Microstructures of Iron based Wrought Cr-Ni-Mo Duplex Alloy.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 69/1-3, pp. 247-256, 1997.
W. J.Diamond.“Practical Experimental Design for Engineers and Scientists, 2nd Ed.” Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp.15, 368, 1989.
Dr. Joseph Ifeanyichukwu Achebo
University of Benin - Nigeria
Mr. Raphael S. Ebhojiaye
University of Benin - Nigeria