Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Comparative Study of Three DNA-based Information Hiding Methods
Nisreen Suliman Terkawi, Lamia Berriche, Amjad Ali Alamar, Maimounah Abdurahman Albrahim, Wafaa Saad Alsaffar
Pages - 45 - 58     |    Revised - 31-03-2021     |    Published - 30-04-2021
Volume - 15   Issue - 2    |    Publication Date - April 2021  Table of Contents
Information Security, Steganography, Substitution, Insertion, Complementary Pair.
Cryptography is the science of protecting information by transforming data into formats that cannot be recognized by unauthorized users. Steganography is the science of hiding information using different media such as image, audio, video, text, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence. The DNA-based steganography is a newly discovered information security technology characterized by high capacity, high randomization, and low modification rate that leads to increased security. There are various DNA-based methods for hiding information.. In this paper, we compared three DNA-based techniques (substitution, insertion, and complementary) in terms of its capacity, cracking property, Bit Per Nucleotide (BPN), and payload. The selected algorithms combine DNA-based steganography and cryptography techniques. The results show that the substitution technique offers the best BPN for short secret messages and offers the best imperceptibility feature. We also found that both the substitution and the complementary method have a threshold BPN. On the other hand, the insertion method does not have a threshold BPN and it is more difficult to crack.
1 Google Scholar 
2 Semantic Scholar 
3 refSeek 
4 BibSonomy 
5 ResearchGate 
6 J-Gate 
7 Scribd 
8 SlideShare 
A. Atito, A. Khalifa, and S. Z. Rida, “DNA-Based Data Encryption and Hiding Using Playfair and Insertion Techniques,” J. Commun. Comput. Eng., 2011, doi: 10.20454/jcce.2012.242.
A. Khalifa, A. Elhadad, and S. Hamad, “Secure blind data hiding into pseudo dna sequences using playfair ciphering and generic complementary substitution,” Appl. Math. Inf. Sci., 2016, doi: 10.18576/amis/100427.
A. Khalifa, “LSBase: A key encapsulation scheme to improve hybrid crypto-systems using DNA steganography,” Proceedings - 2013 8th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Systems, ICCES 2013, 2013.
A. Leier, C. Richter, W. Banzhaf, and H. Rauhe, “Cryptography with DNA binary strands,” BioSystems, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0303-2647(00)00083-6.
A. M. Qadir and N. Varol, “A review paper on cryptography,” 7th Int. Symp. Digit. Forensics Secur. ISDFS 2019, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ISDFS.2019.8757514.
A. Majumdar, A. Biswas, A. Majumder, S. K. Sood, and K. L. Baishnab, “A novel DNA-inspired encryption strategy for concealing cloud storage,” Front. Comput. Sci., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1–18, Jun. 2021, doi: 10.1007/s11704-019-9015-2.
A. O. Mohammad Reza Abbasy, Pourya Nikfard and and M. R. N. Torkaman, “DNA Base Data Hiding Algorithm,” Int. J. New Comput. Archit. Their Appl., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 183–192, 2012.
“National Center for Biotechnology Information.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ (accessed Mar. 28, 2021).
“The Structure of DNA.” http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/Astr2016/text/nucleicacid1.htm (accessed Mar. 28, 2021).
B. Shimanovsky, J. Feng, and M. Potkonjak, “Hiding data in DNA,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics), 2003, doi: 10.1007/3-540-36415-3_24.
C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature, 1999, doi: 10.1038/21092.
D. A. Zebari, H. Haron, and S. R. M. Zeebaree, “Security issues in DNA based on data hiding: A review,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2017.
D. Panda, K. A. Molla, M. J. Baig, A. Swain, D. Behera, and M. Dash, “DNA as a digital information storage device: hope or hype?,” 3 Biotech, vol. 8, no. 5. Springer Verlag, May 01, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s13205-018-1246-7.
G. Hamed, M. Marey, S. A. El-Sayed, and M. F. Tolba, “Comparative study for various DNA based steganography techniques with the essential conclusions about the future research,” Proc. 2016 11th Int. Conf. Comput. Eng. Syst. ICCES 2016, pp. 220–225, Jan. 2017, doi: 10.1109/ICCES.2016.7822003.
G. Hamed, M. Marey, S. A. El-Sayed, and M. F. Tolba, “Hybrid technique for steganography-based on DNA with n-bits binary coding rule,” Proceedings of the 2015 7th International Conference of Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, SoCPaR 2015, 2016.
H. J. Shiu, K. L. Ng, J. F. Fang, R. C. T. Lee, and C. H. Huang, “Data hiding methods based upon DNA sequences,” Inf. Sci. (Ny)., 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2010.01.030.
I. Peterson, “Hiding in DNA,” Muse, no. 22, 2001.
J. H. Gehani, A., LaBean, T.H., Reif, “DNA-based Cryptography.,” Proc. 5th DIMACS Work. DNA Based Comput., 1999.
J. S. Taur, H. Y. Lin, H. L. Lee, and C. W. Tao, “Data hiding in DNA sequences based on table lookup substitution,” Int. J. Innov. Comput. Inf. Control, 2012.
M. E. Saleh, A. A. Aly, and F. A. Omara, “Enhancing Pixel Value Difference (PVD) Image Steganography by Using Mobile Phone Keypad (MPK) Coding,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Secur., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 96–107, 2015.
M. S. Taha, M. S. Mohd Rahim, S. A. Lafta, M. M. Hashim, and H. M. Alzuabidi, “Combination of Steganography and Cryptography: A short Survey,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2019, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/518/5/052003.
M. X. Lu, X. J. Lai, G. Z. Xiao, and L. Qin, “Symmetric-key cryptosystem with DNA technology,” Sci. China, Ser. F Inf. Sci., 2007, doi: 10.1007/s11432-007-0025-6.
N. Alghamdi and L. Berriche, “Capacity Investigation of Markov Chain-Based Statistical Text Steganography: Arabic Language Case,” in Proceedings of the 2019 Asia Pacific Information Technology Conference, 2019, pp. 37–43, doi: 10.1145/3314527.3314532.
N. Hamid, A. Yahya, R. B. Ahmad & Osamah, and M. M. Al-Qershi, “Image Steganography Techniques: An Overview,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Secur., no. 6, p. 168, 2012.
N. Pandian, “An Image Steganography Algorithm Using Huffman and Interpixel Difference Encoding,” Nithyanandam Pandian Int. J. Comput. Sci. Secur., no. 8, p. 202, 2014.
P. Johri, A. Mishra, S. Das, and A. Kumar, “Survey on steganography methods (text, image, audio, video, protocol and network steganography),” Proc. 10th INDIACom; 2016 3rd Int. Conf. Comput. Sustain. Glob. Dev. INDIACom 2016, 2016.
P. Malathi, M. Manoaj, R. Manoj, V. Raghavan, and R. E. Vinodhini, “Highly Improved DNA Based Steganography,” Procedia Computer Science, 2017.
Q. Wang and C. Smith, “Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fifth Edition),” Biosci. Educ., 2008, doi: 10.3108/beej.11.r4.
S. DehiaaKahdum, Ghaith AdillAl-Bawee and M. NsaifJasim, “A Proposed DNA Postfix Hiding Method,” Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 12047–12051, 2019, doi: 10.35940/ijrte.C5321.118419.
S. Mishra, V. K. Yadav, M. C. Trivedi, and T. Shrimali, “Audio steganography techniques: A survey,” in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2018, vol. 554, pp. 581–589, doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-3773-3_56.
S. Raja Ratna, J. B. Shajilin Loret, D. Merlin Gethsy, P. Ponnu Krishnan, and P. Anand Prabu, “A Review on Various Approaches in Video Steganography,” in Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies, vol. 33, Springer, 2020, pp. 626–632.
W. S. and L. Brown, Computer security: principles and practice, Third. Pearson, 2015.
X. J. Lai, M. X. Lu, L. Qin, J. S. Han, and X. W. Fang, “Asymmetric encryption and signature method with DNA technology,” Sci. China, Ser. F Inf. Sci., 2010, doi: 10.1007/s11432-010-0063-3.
Miss Nisreen Suliman Terkawi
Computer Science Department, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, 11564 - Saudi Arabia
Dr. Lamia Berriche
Computer Science Department, Prince Sultan University Riyadh, 12435 - Saudi Arabia
Miss Amjad Ali Alamar
Computer Science Department, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, 11564 - Saudi Arabia
Miss Maimounah Abdurahman Albrahim
Computer Science Department, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, 11564 - Saudi Arabia
Miss Wafaa Saad Alsaffar
Computer Science Department, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, 11564 - Saudi Arabia

View all special issues >>