Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Design of Binary to BCD Code Converter using Area Optimized Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Full Adder
B. Ramesh, M.Asha Rani
Pages - 49 - 64     |    Revised - 31-10-2015     |    Published - 30-11-2015
Volume - 9   Issue - 4    |    Publication Date - November 2015  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
ODE Converter, Quantum Dot Cellular Automata, Clock Zones, Wire Crossover, Majority Gate.
ABSTRACT
The Integrated Circuit Technology (IC) is growing day to day to improve circuit performance and density for compact systems. A novel technology, Quantum dot Cellular Automata (QCA) was introduced to overcome the scaling limitations of CMOS technology. In order to bring a new paradigm of IC design in an efficient and optimized manner, a binary to BCD code converter is designed using QCA technology based area optimized adder. It is observed that the proposed binary to BCD code converter design gives better results in terms of the area and number of QCA cells. The results obtained by the proposed design shows that 61% of area reduced compared to boolean expression based design, this design is further optimized to reduce the QCA cell count by 45% with respect to the design in [1].
1 Google Scholar 
2 CiteSeerX 
3 refSeek 
4 Scribd 
5 SlideShare 
6 PdfSR 
A. Gin, P.D. Tougaw, and S. Williams, “An alternative geometry for quantum dot cellular automata,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 8281-8286, 1999.
A. Pulimeno, M. Graziano, A. Sanginario, V. Cauda, D. Demarchi, and G. Piccinini, “Bisferrocene molecular QCA wire: Ab initio simulations of fabrication driven fault tolerance,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 498-507, Jul. 2013.
A. Vetteth, K. Walus, V.S. Dimitrov, and G.A. Jullien, “Quantum dot cellular automata carrylook-ahead adder ad barrel shifter,” in Proc. IEEE Emerging Telecomm. Technol. Conf.,2002, pp. 2-4.
A.G. Sasikala, S. Maragatharaj, S. Jayadevi, “Effective binary to BCD converter using quantum dot cellular automata,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on devices circuits and systems, pp. 1-5, 2014.
A.S. Shamsabadi, B.S. Ghahfarokhi, K. Zamanifar, and N.Movahedinia, “Applying inherent capabilities of quantum-dot cellular automata to design: D flip-flop a case study,” J. Syst. Archit., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 180-187, 2009.
B.Bishnoi, M. Giridhar, B. Ghosh, and M. Nagaraju, “Ripple carry adder using five input majority gates,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Electron. Devices Solid State Circuit, 2012, pp. 1-4.
C.S. Lent and P. D. Tougaw, “A device architecture for computing with quantum dots,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 541-557, Apr. 1997.
C.S. Lent, M. Liu, and Y. Lu, “Bennett clocking of quantum dot cellular automata and the limits of binary logic scaling,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 16, pp. 4240-4251, 2006.
C.S. Lent, P.D. Tougaw, W. Porod, and G.H. Bernstein, “Quantum Cellular Automata,” Nanotechnology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 49-57, Jan.1993.
D. Adedi, G. Jaberipur, and M. Sangsefidi, “Coplanar full adder in quantum-dot cellular automata via clock-zone-based crossover,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 497-504, may 2015.
E.E. Swartzlander, H. Cho, I. Kong, and S.W. Kim, “Computer arithmetic implemented with QCA: a progress report,” in Proc. 44th Asilomar Conf. Rec. Signals, Syst, Comput., 2010, pp. 1392-1398.
E.P. Blair, E. Yost, and C.S. Lent, “Power dissipation in clocking wires for clocked molecular quantum-dot cellular automata,” J. Comput. Electron., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49-55, 2010.
H. Cho and E.E. Swartzlander, “Adder and multiplier design in quantum dot cellular automata,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 721-727, Jun. 2009.
H. Cho and E.E. Swartzlander, “Adder design and analysis for quantum dot cellular automata,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 721-727, Jun. 2009.
H. Cho and E.E. Swartzlander, “Adder design and analysis for quantum dot cellular automata,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 721-727, Jun. 2009.
I. Hanninen and J. Takala, “Robust adders based on quantum dot cellular automata,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Appl. Specific Syst., Architect. Process., 2007, pp. 391-396.
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), http://www.itrs.net, 2007.
J. Huang, M. Momenzadeh, M.B. Tahoori, and F. Lombardi, “Defect characterization for scaling of QCA devices [quantum dot cellular automata],” in Proc. IEEE 19th Int. Symp. Defect Fault Tolerance VLST Syst., 2004, pp. 30-38.
K. Walus and G.A. Jullien, “Design rules for an emerging SOC technology: quantum dot cellular automata,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1225-1244, Jun. 2006.
K. Walus, G. Jullien, and V. Dimitrov, “Computer arithmetic structures for quantum dot cellular automata,” in Proc. 37th Asilomar Conf. Rec. Signals, Syst, Comput., vol. 2, 2004, pp. 1435-1439.
K. Walus, T.J. Dysart, G.A. Jullien, and R.A. Budiamn, “QCADesigner: A rapid design and simulation tool for quantum dot cellular automata,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26-31, Mar. 2004.
M. Awais, M. Vacca, M. Graziano, M.R. Roch, and G. Masera, “Quantum dot cellular check node implementation for LDPC decoders,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 368377, May 2013.
M. Crocker, M. Niemier, X.S. Hu, and M. Lienerman, “Molecular QCA design with chemically reasonable constraints,”ACM J. Emerging Technol. Comput. Syst., vol. 4, no. 2, art. no. 9, 2008.
M. Liu, and C.S. Lent, “High-speed metallic quantum-dot cellular automata,” in Proc. 3rd IEEE Conf. Nanotechnol. (IEEE NANO), vol. 2, Aug. 2003, pp. 465-468.
M. Mitic et al., “Demonstration of a silicon-based quantum cellular automata cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 89, no.1, pp. 013503-1-013503-3, 2006.
M. Sangsefidi, D. Adedi, and M. Moradian, “Design a collector with more reliability against defects during manufacturing in nanometer technology, QCA,” J. Softw. Eng. Appl. vol. 6, no.6, pp.304-312, 2013.
P. Agawal, and B. Ghosh, “Innovative design methodologies in quantum dot cellular automata,” Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 253-262, 2015.
P. Bhattacharjee, K. Das, M. De, and D. De, “SPICE modeling and analysis for metal island ternary QCA logic device,” in Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing), vol. 339. West Bengal, India: Spingerverlag, 2015, pp. 33-41.
P.D. Tougaw and C.S. Lent, “Logical devices implemented using quantum dot cellular automata,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 1818-1825, 1994.
R. Devadoss, K. Pual, and M.Balakrishnan, “Coplanar QCA crossovers,” Electron. Lett., vol. 45, no. 24, pp. 1234-1235, 2009.
R. Zhang, K. Walus, W. Wang, and G.A. Jullien, “Performance comparison of quantum dot cellular automata adders,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., 2005, pp. 2522-2526.
S.E. Frost, A.F. Rodrigues, A.W. Janiszewski, R.T. Rausch, and P.M.Kogge, “Memory in motion: A study of storage structures in QCA,” in Proc. 1st workshop Non-silicon Comput., 2002, pp. 1-8.
S.H. Shin, J.C. Jeon, and K.Y. Yoo, “Wire-crossing technique on quantum-dot cellular automata,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Next Generation Comput. Inform. Technol., vol. 27, 2013, pp. 52-57.
V. Pudi and K. Sridharan, “ New decomposition theorems on majority logic for low-delay adder designs in quantum dot cellular automata,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 678-682, Oct. 2012.
V. Pudi and K. Sridhran, “Low complexity design of ripple carry adder and Brent-Kung adders in QCA,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 105-119, Jan. 2012.
W. Liu, L. Liang, M. O’Neil, and E.E. Swartzlander, “A first step towards cost functions for quantum dot cellular automata designs,” Nanotechnology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 476-487, 2014
W. Wang, K. Walus, and G.A. Jullien, “Quantum dot cellular automata adders,” in Proc. IEEE 3rd Conf. Nanotechnol., vol.1, 2003, pp.461-464.
Y.B.Kim, “Challenges for nanoscale MOSFETs and emerging nano-electronics,” IEEE Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater, vol. 11, no. 3, pp.93-105, 2010.
Y.Lu, M.Liu, and C.S.Lent, “Molecular electronics-From structure to circuit dynamics,” in proc. 6th IEEE conf. Nanotechnol., Jul. 2006, pp.62-65.
Y.Lu, M.Liu, and C.S.Lent, “Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata: From molecular structure to circuit dynamics,” J.appl. Phys., vol. 102, no. 3, pp.034311-1-034311-7, 2007.
Mr. B. Ramesh
ECE Department Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad Hyderabad, 500085, India - India
brameshb2@rediffmail.com
Dr. M.Asha Rani
JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad - India