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International Journal of Business Research Management (IJBRM)
An International peer-review journal operated under CSC-OpenAccess Policy.
ISSN - 2180-2165
Published - Bi-Monthly   |   Established - 2010   |   Year of Publication - 2022

December 31, 2022

January 31, 2023

February 28, 2023

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These articles have been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication but are pending final changes. The articles will be published in near future as soon as they are assigned to IJBRM issues.
Assessing the key barriers to innovation acceptance in Iranian construction companies
Hadi Sarvari, Daniel W.M. Chan, Reza Soltani
The emergence of innovation in recent decades has attracted the attention of major companies around the world to its productivity and importance. As a developing country, Iran has great potential in the construction industry, but due to the lack of a proper strategy and the lack of a favorable process in innovation, growth and development has not been appropriate. The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritize the key barriers to innovation in Iranian construction companies, which have been answered by 62 board members, consultants, contractors, supervisor and computational engineers, experts and suppliers in the construction industry. About 60 percent of participants are from the private sector, 29 percent from the public sector, and 11 percent from both sectors. Most of the participants were between 25 and 45 years old and the majority had a master's and bachelor's degree and had a experience of 5 to 20 years. In the questionnaire, the main factors of research, including: cultural, financial, organizational, and managerial, had the most effect, and human, investigate, and research factors had a moderate effect, and external factors had the least effect. The results showed that the main determinants of non-use of innovation in construction companies can be classified into internal and external factors. The factors was evaluated based on the 5-point Likert scale measurement. The results shows that all factors identified as barriers to innovation acceptance in Iranian construction companies.
KEYWORDS - Innovation, Barriers, Construction
Tongesai Mpofu, Shephard Makurumidze
The purpose of the paper is to find how SMEs in Zimbabwe managed to implement change with respect to COVID-19. The pandemic has changed the way of doing things in the entire world. To survive in situations, organisations need to change. All the SMEs in Zimbabwe may be trying their level best to implement change successfully however, all of them are facing severe issues. The purpose of this study is to identify the major hurdles in implementing change and identifying a way out to cope with the situation based on available literature on SMEs and change management. The other purpose is to find the challenges faced by these SMEs in managing and implementing change.

This study follows a synthesized literature review methodology and is a kind of review paper. In this research, literature that has been written on crisis management and especially over the COVID-19 has been reviewed. In this review analysis, previous studies regarding change management and the importance of SMEs in economic sustainability have been discussed. The paper is a review of existing literature and will identify how the organizations can survive through implementing change successfully.

This study found out that SMEs in Zimbabwe have being struggling to manage and implement change due to non-availability of financial resources. This study is limited to SMEs in Harare province only it does not cover all SMEs in Zimbabwe. The study is significant for SMEs in the entire world. The study is useful for understanding the issues that are related to managing and implementing change in small and medium enterprises especially while facing contingencies. The findings of the study and the literature review led to the conclusion that without implementing change successfully, it is impossible to survive during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to deal with the crisis of resistance to change organisations should motivate and train its employees. The study recommends SMEs in Zimbabwe to manage change by training and motivating employees and the government to support the SMEs sector in order for it to survive since it’s a backbone of the Zimbabwean economy.
KEYWORDS - Change Management, Implementing Change, Small and Medium Enterprises, COVID-19, Performanc
Tongesai Mpofu, Shephard Makurumidze
COVID-19 pandemic brought a lot of challenges for the global community from the year 2020. The spread of this virus led to unparalleled health crisis in all the countries across the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused unprecedented panic and disruptions for both the public and private sectors and is considered an experiential threat to the global economy with governments and businesses grappling with the effects. In Zimbabwe, the pandemic has caused challenges and opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and in some cases threatening their own survival and forcing many SMEs to change their focus in order to manage the crisis. Some SMEs have adopted crisis management and alternative business response efforts. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the challenges of COVID-19 pandemic to SMEs in Zimbabwe and identify the emerging opportunities arising as a result of the pandemic. The methodology of this article is secondary information where various literature on challenges and opportunities for small to medium businesses was analyzed. Secondary data results show that many small businesses are suffering and the COVID-19 caused destruction for many small to medium businesses. It is difficult to survive with low income, jobs were lost and frail marketing performance. Findings from this study show that amongst the crisis caused by COVID-19, numerous opportunities have also emerged for innovative Zimbabwean entrepreneurs to explore. The firms should reduce expenses, adapt to new technology in order to be competitive and survive and utilise other business opportunities that have been opened up by COVID-19 pandemic. The study recommends that SMEs should first assess the damages of the pandemic to the businesses and then find the strategies to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic and maximize the new opportunities. Furthermore, the study recommends the companies to adopt digital marketing, and use different alternatives to deliver their products and recover from crisis.
KEYWORDS - COVID-19, Pandemic, SMEs, Challenges, Emerging Opportunities, Digital
Sustainability: Future Orientation Through Engagement of MSME’s
Deepti Prakash, Parul Manchanda, Twinkle Arora
Purpose: Enterprises have been facing a concern from the government to take an initiative in the various environmental maintenance and in the implementation of various sustainable practices laterally with the satisfaction of the customer demands. Thus, the enterprises are enforced to implement sustainable ways of doing business, which would help them achieve competitive advantage in the long run. This paper intends to institutionalise the various sustainability measures (through the leadership approaches and the theoretical approaches) in the various Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME’s).

Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is a general review for highlighting the varied reasons and unreason’s behind the various enterprises practising sustainability initiatives in the real business scenario. A thorough and wide exploratory search was made from the existing literature with the help of online databases. The results are presented in the form of descriptive findings.

Findings: The research paper concludes that, sustainability is not a unitary concept, but involves a throng of efforts (to explain, the activities, actors and the resources employed). The MSME’s require explicit thought, in case of business plans for sustainability as it is by one way or another not equivalent for the large firms. It has also been brought about that the MSME’s require a different way to support sustainability in comparison to the various large organisationswhich hold a varied set profile and resources.

Practical implications: Sustainability, today is a concern for everybody in the civilisation, this is because of the changes in the climate that have been observed and the growing problem of global warming. This research work, may enable the MSME managers to reconsider the whole business strategy, and making sustainability as an important inclusive element of the same, and thus practising it too.

Research Limitations: Sustainability, has been an important concern to the society in general which points out that there can be plenty opportunities for various organisations to identify strategies that will have a bearing and may positively advance the – social and environmental performance. However, this research work, does not provide an empirical evidence and support but offers insights on engaging MSME’s in sustainability.

Originality/ Value: This research contributes to the area of literature by providing a review, for the various considerations and occasionsfor the various business strategies for sustainable development and its varied applications to the certainties of business operations in various MSME enterprises.
KEYWORDS - MSME, Small and Medium Enterprises, Sustainable Development, Leadership Approaches, Business Sustainability, Environmental Management Practices.
The Social Responsibility and the Studies about the Police Forces: An Analytical Review
MĂłnica de Melo Freitas, Ivone Freire e Costa, Marco Meneguzzo, Rocco Frondizi
This study aimed to verify how Social Responsibility in polices is being discussed by authors from different scientific areas. The main goal means to identify the ethical values and the practices invoked by the authors to justify the phenomena of social responsibility in police sector. Our initial hypothesis is that the authors of police studies are approaching it as merely a result of the implementation of models and practices typical of the privative sector into the public sector through the New Public Management. During our study we had found 2.010 papers that discussed the Social Responsibility in public sector but only 18 tried to understand it in police forces applying authors from Law, Criminal and Justice, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Economy, Business and Accountability Sciences and Neuro- Cognitive Sciences and comprehensive models of analyzing. The findings produced by the study showed that Social Responsibility is an unexplored theme until today in police studies. It highlighted also that the New Public Management theories offer an interesting framework theory to understand the Social Responsibility phenomena within police forces. Whatever, it enforces the necessity to understand the Social Responsibility in institutional and cognitive ways because authors appointed that their personal values conduct the modes in which normative orientations are understood and applied by them. This paper is innovative because offers new insights about the Social Responsibility within police forces, but it did not produce inputs that allow characterize the performance of the police forces in any country.
KEYWORDS - Social Responsibility , New Public Management , Police Forces
The Importance of Stakeholder Collaboration and Co-creation in the Social Innovation Creation Process
Emmanuel Osigwe
Over the years social innovation (SI) has been offering useful solutions to social problems in societies. SIs are created by social enterprises (SEs) that may operate as a non-profit, for-profit, or hybrid enterprise with the primary mission to create social impact to benefit societies. The literature on SI is emerging, thus greater attention is given to understanding and conceptualising SI. Recent studies have shown that the process of SI largely remains unexplored. As such, little is known about the importance and the role of external actors in the process. This study examines the importance of stakeholder co-creation within the SI ecosystem through inductive analysis of interview data from 20 SEs in four countries. The study finds SE seek strategic collaborations, engage critical beneficiaries, and explore social networks external to their enterprise when seeking to co-create SI.
KEYWORDS - Social innovation, Stakeholder engagement, Collaboration
Five Lessons by C.S. Lewis' Narnia, Discovered for Agile Teams
Emanuel Kessler
People could learn from stories. In this article, the question is asked: What can people working agile learn from “The Chronicles of Narnia”? With this goal in mind, five scenes are explained and the lessons are worked out. Since there are a large number of ways of working agile, this article is focused on the Kanban Method and Scrum as agile ideas.
KEYWORDS - C.S. Lewis, Narnia, agile, Kanban Method, Scrum
How has Entrepreneurship Opportunity Formation amongst immigrants been influenced by the Covid-19 pandemic?
Osa-Godwin Osaghae, Thomas. M. Cooney
A body of evidence exists which suggests that stable economic conditions support entrepreneurial opportunity formation within a national context. However, despite the advent of the COVID-19 Pandemic and recent global economic uncertainty, entrepreneurial activity is continuing to flourish across the globe. This article explores the possible factors driving entrepreneurship opportunity formation in the current climate. The study employed a comparative narrative analysis of literature relating to entrepreneurship opportunity formation, environmental change (e.g. COVID-19 pandemic) and demand expansion (e.g. market extension resulting from environmental changes). The triangulation of the literature from these diverse topics leads to the conclusion that environmental changes and irregularity creates demand expansion that can drive entrepreneurship in any climate. This article contributes to knowledge by suggesting that irregular events within the environment (not stable economic growth alone) can positively influence entrepreneurship opportunity formation.
KEYWORDS - Environment, climate change, entrepreneurship opportunity
Network governance and co-production of community services. The interregional Italian - Swiss program D.E.A. (SIBRM9)
Veronica Giuliani, Davide Maggi, Cinzia Zugolaro
Over the last decades, the implementation of public networks to address social issues has become more the rule than the exception. Especially in the public sector, the interactions between different actors, and thus the activation of networks, ought to find shared solutions for problems of general interest that neither government nor other spheres of society can meet on their own. Using participative approaches, public networks reshape the traditional redistributive welfare paradigms and responsibilities in the production of social wellbeing. This paper studies the structure, roles, and performance of the network built to implement the interregional Italian-Swiss project D.E.A. (DiversitĂ  E Arti performative per una societĂ  inclusiva del terzo millennio), a European program that involves public administration, non-profit organization, universities and citizens, to promote and support the participation in civic activities of fragile people at risk of social exclusion. Using a combined approach this paper analyzes the case study both from analytical and governance perspectives: it proposes a unified theoretical framework based on the extant literature, to explore the nature and the related critical factors underlying the success of the public network under study.
KEYWORDS - network, governance , participation
Production Portfolio of Christian Charities - Doing the Right Thing and Keeping the Mission
Steffen Flessa
Christian charities are non-profit organizations (NPO) built on the Christian virtue of love. However, being a Christian NPO does not automatically ensure that Christian management is practiced. In this paper, the production portfolio is seen as the main criterion to determine whether a Christian NPO is indeed following Christian principles in its management. A flow chart is developed to define four categories of product lines: Touchstones are services with high relevance to the mission of the organization but without sufficient funding. Stars also make an important contribution to the achievement of the target system and are well-financed. Cash cows receive sufficient funding as well, but are not (anymore) relevant for the achievement of the original mission of the organization. Goiters might have been touchstones, stars and cash cows in former times, but today they neither do fulfil the mission of the organization, nor do they produce a positive margin. Christian charities should develop touchstones by constantly seeking upcoming existential needs of people and developing respective services. However, there is a risk that older and growing Christian charities lose their calling. Based on the Greiner curve we argue that the management of these organizations must motivate and coach their staff so that they remain dedicated to the original mission while the organization faces severe crises. By a quick and comprehensive analysis of the production program and support for the staff in particular during transgression phases, Christian management in Christian charities becomes a reality.
KEYWORDS - Christian management, Nonprofit Organization, Production portfolio
On the reciprocal relationship between faith and management
Volker Kessler
This article describes the complex reciprocal relationship between faith and management. Firstly, faith-based organizations have to be managed. Some management methods will foster the faith; others will affect the faith negatively. Each faith group will have to look for management methods suited to the specific faith of that group. Secondly, faith has an influence on management. This can happen implicitly or by intention. An example of the latter is when managers just copy concepts from a faith group because of their success, without necessarily sharing their faith. Or it happens when believers want to implement the standards of their faith at work. The concept faith@work can be problematic if it is a single-faith approach within a secular work environment because it might lead to injustice. Due to the reciprocal relationship between faith and management, we can discover the re-entry of religious terms or concepts: these terms originate in Christian faith, enter the management sciences and from there re-enter the Christian faith. The examples “servant leadership” and “vision” show the subtle change of meaning that occurs when words wander between the two worlds, thus becoming “false friends” to the faith group.
KEYWORDS - Economic theology, Faith-based organizations, faith@work
Ethical theory vs. practical worl-life: implications for organizations
Ana Maria Cabodevila
In business, the relationship between ethical theory and a practical work-life is challenging, since there is a strong ethics-practice contrast: work as the practical dimension and ethics as the theoretical dimension. There is, thus, a gap between theory and practice, and the imbalance is obvious in a majority of organizations, be they profit or non-profit. How do organizations respond to ethical theories of business? On the one hand, ethical convictions and practices may be understood as being merely subsets of national culture, and so are thus not, or only partially, considered in the workplace. On the other hand, organizations may perceive business ethics as being rather limiting with regard to practice owing to an abstract understanding of ethics (BrĂĽgger & Kretzschmar, 2015, p. 3). Business ethics theory is, thus, often perceived as being difficult to put into practice. The purpose of this article is to show that for many centuries, theory and practice, or faith and working life, were not separated in the way that they apparently are today. The aim is to use the examples shown to encourage organizations and responsible persons to break down the artificial divisions introduced by the Enlightenment in such a way that ethical thinking in working life no longer remains a foreign concept but can indeed find its way into daily work.
KEYWORDS - Business ethics, Enlightenment, NGO
"Right-sized", Contextualized Faith: The Challenging Cooperation of FBDOs with Institutional Donors
Matthias Hoehne
This paper explores the challenging cooperation between faith-based development organizations (FBDOs) and institutional donors. It argues that FBDOs need to find their “right-sized,” contextualized faith by understanding their unique developmental and spiritual contributions and the challenges they face. Five distinctive contributions of FBDOs are described: extensive networks, community engagement at multiple levels, holistic and innovative approaches, higher trust level, and spiritual capital. Then five challenges they face are set forth: instrumentalization of FBDOs, a need constantly to prove themselves, transparency, proselytism, and downplay of spiritual identity. In light of the FBDOs distinctive contributions and challenges, three practical recommendations for FBDOs to achieve “right-sized,” contextualized faith are presented, namely to aim for a) “right-sized, contextualized programs, b) “right-sized” funding, and c) “right-sized” faith.
KEYWORDS - FBDO, faith-based organizations, institutional donors, faith identity, development, spirituality
Faith and Management at Theological Seminaries
Johannes Schroeder
Leadership for theological training institutions has been subject to the influences of the academization of the organizations and a concurrent professionalization of the leader’s role. The doctoral thesis “Leading evangelical seminaries in German-speaking Europe: A transcendental phenomenology” (Schroder, 2016) is an empirical phenomenology among lead administrators of protestant seminaries in the free-church context. It describes the participants’ experiences in their lived phenomenon of leadership within the theoretical frameworks of spiritual leadership, servant leadership, and workplace spirituality. Six lead administrators voice their experiences regarding their management responsibilities and their spirituality. This article will summarize the study while focusing on findings and themes on issues of faith and management. As the most profound theme emerged the leader’s spirituality as the primary source of motivation and meaning for the tasks and experiences contained within their leadership role.
KEYWORDS - Spiritual Leadership, Servant Leadership, Workplace Spirituality
Franciscan Spirituality as a source of Self-Leadership in the modern management world
Markus Warode
What can we learn from the Franciscan Tradition for the management and leadership world today? In this paper the focus lies on the 800-year history of the Franciscan family as a learning organization in order to explore the question of transformation as a key concept of Franciscan life resp. Franciscan leadership. To do so we look at the founder of the Order, Francis of Assisi (1181–1226) first. Francis himself stands for a personal, continuous process of transformation in which he chooses the Gospel as a basic orientation for his life or as the foundation of his self-leadership. He completely changed his life goals and defines the identity of the entire Franciscan organization. In this context, the core values of the Franciscans, such as evangelical poverty, serving character, and the aspect of brotherhood will be discussed. The Franciscan approach serves as a perfect field of practice for bringing together attitude and action. Finally, practical experiences from the Franciscan tradition, like developing of structural elements (e.g., the annual chapters) are related to the management context. By focusing on the practice and on transformation, the Franciscan example can inspire modern organizations and leadership practise in times of the current challenges.
KEYWORDS - Self-Leadership, Franciscan Spirituality, VUCA-World, Transformation, Leadership.
COVID-19 and Its impact on the Tourism Sector and Hotel Business in Georgia
Marina Metreveli, Tinatin Dolidze
The objective of the paper is to study the negative impact of COVID-19 on the Georgian Tourism sector and Hotel business. In particular, the chronology of the booking trends and the level of digitization of hotels in the pandemic and post-pandemic period; also, what impact does the coronavirus in general have on Georgia's tourism business and hotel adaptation process during crisis challenges. The research aims are to study the spread of digitalization and rapid development in the field of hospitality, in particular in the hotel business. Also, to identify tools, that have worked positively in a pandemic, at a time, when direct contact is severely restricted by regulations.

Based on the results of the research, chronological changes in hotel occupancy during the pandemic and post-pandemic periods should be identified, as well as the impact of digitization on changes in the number of employees. Accordingly, to explore innovative ways of hotel adaptation, creative and simple ways of restoring industry, world experience, and new approaches of Georgia in the post-pandemic period. We are talking about innovations that many hotels wanted to use for years, but needed a new "trigger" in the form of covid. We would like to share with you the results of our research on the Georgian experience of such an adaptation, which we connected from European analogs. We have also developed recommendations for measures to be taken to restore the hotels.
KEYWORDS - Tourism, Hotel Business, Covid-19, Digitalization, Innovations.